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iakovlev.org

Часть 4 - Advanced Topics

В этом разделе будут рассмотрены такие вопросы , как управление TCP , UNIX domain sockets, UDP protocol. Будут рассмотрены вопросы , связанные с broadcasting and multicasting.

Раздел 17. TCP Urgent Data

TCP is fundamentally stream based. Data placed by the sending process into the operating system's TCP transmit buffer is received by the other end and read by the receiving process in exactly the same order in which it was sent. But what if the sending process detects some exceptional condition and it needs to alert the receiver immediately? Vanilla TCP can't handle this well because all data has equal priority, and the urgent message will have to wait its turn behind all the data sent before it. This is where TCP "urgent" data fits in. This facility, more commonly known as "out-of-band" data, makes it possible, in a limited and highly qualified manner, to send and receive TCP messages that are delivered ahead of the ordinary TCP stream.

To illustrate the use of such a facility, consider a terminal-based application that allows the user to queue a stream of long-running commands to be executed on the server. After he issues several commands, and while the server is still chewing through them, the user changes his mind and decides to cancel by hitting the interrupt key. But the commands have already been sent to the server and are in the TCP receive queue waiting for processing. Somehow the client must transmit a cancel signal to the server immediately, without queuing a cancel command behind other normal-priority data. One way to accomplish this is to use TCP urgent data to notify the server to clear its list of pending commands and to ignore commands already received but not yet read. We develop just such an application in the course of this chapter.

"Out-of-Band" Data and the Urgent Pointer

Remember the send() and recv() calls from Chapter 4 (Other Socket-Related Functions)? We are now going to use them for the first time.

You can send a single byte of TCP urgent data over a connected socket by calling send() with the MSG_OOB flag:

send ($socket,'a',MSG_OOB) or die "Can't send(): $!";
 

In this code fragment, we call send() to transmit the character "a" across the socket $socket. The MSG_OOB flag specifies that the message is urgent and must be delivered right away. On the other end, the recipient of the message can read the urgent data by calling recv() with the same flag:

recv ($socket,$data,1,MSG_OOB) or die "Can't recv(): $!";
 

Here we're asking recv() to fetch 1 byte of urgent data from the socket and store it in the scalar $data.

This looks simple enough, but there is significant complexity lurking under the surface. Although the term "out-of-band data" implies that it is transmitted outside the normal data stream, this is not the case.

Urgent data works in the manner illustrated in Figure 17.1. During normal TCP operations, the sending process queues data into the operating system's TCP transmit buffer. The contents of the buffer are spooled across the network and eventually end up in the TCP receive buffer of the destination host. A sending process now sends 1 byte of urgent data by calling send() with the MSG_OOB flag. This causes three things to happen:

Figure 17.1. Sending TCP urgent data

graphics/17fig01.gif

  1. The TCP stream is put into URGENT mode, and the operating system alters the receiving process to this fact by sending it the URG signal.

  2. The urgent data is appended to the transmit buffer, where it will be sent to the receiving process using the normal TCP flow-control rules.

  3. A mark, known as the "urgent pointer," is added to the TCP stream to mark the position of the urgent data. There is only one urgent pointer per TCP stream.

When the receiving process calls recv() with the MSG_OOB flag, the operating system uses the urgent pointer to extract the urgent data byte from the stream and return it separately from the rest. Other calls to sysread() and recv() ordinarily skip over the urgent data, pretending to the caller that it isn't there.

Because of the way TCP urgent data works, there are numerous caveats and restrictions on its use:

  1. Only a single byte of urgent data can be sent at one time. If you use send() to send multiple characters, only the last one will be considered urgent by the receiver.

  2. Because there is only one urgent pointer per stream, if the sender calls send() to write urgent data multiple times before the receiver calls recv(), only the last urgent event will be received. All earlier urgent data marks will be erased, and the earlier urgent data bytes will appear in the normal data stream.

  3. Although the receiving process is sent the URG signal immediately, the urgent data itself is subject to all the TCP flow-control rules. This means that the receiving process may be notified that there is urgent data available before it has actually arrived. Furthermore, it may be necessary to clear some room in the TCP receive buffer before the urgent data byte can be received.

Caveat 3 is the real kicker. If the receiver calls recv() with MSG_OOB before the urgent data has arrived, the call will fail with an EWOULDBLOCK error. The alternatives are to just ignore the urgent data or to perform one or more normal reads until the urgent data arrives. The work needed to implement the latter option is eased slightly by the fact that sysread() stops automatically at the urgent pointer boundary. We'll see examples of this later.

Using TCP Urgent Data

We will write a client/server pair to illustrate the basics of urgent data. The client connects to the server via TCP and sends a stream of lines containing normal (nonurgent) data, with a small pause between each line. The server reads the lines and prints them to standard output.

The twist is that the client intercepts interrupt key (^C) presses and sends out 1 byte of urgent data containing the character "!". The server retrieves the urgent data when it comes in and prints a warning message to that effect.

We will look at the client first. The urg_send.pl script is listed in Figure 17.2.

Figure 17.2. Simple urgent data sender client

graphics/17fig02.gif

Lines 16: Set up the socket We create a socket connected to the indicated host and port.

Lines 710: Install signal handlers We install an INT handler that prints a warning message and then sends a byte of urgent data across the socket using this idiom:

send($socket,"!",MSG_OOB);
 

We also want to be able to quit the program, so we trap the QUIT with a signal handler that calls exit(). On UNIX systems, the QUIT signal is usually issued by pressing "^\" (control-backslash).

Lines 1015: Main loop The remainder of the program is just a loop that writes the string "normal data XX...\n" to the server, where XX is incremented by one each time through the loop. After each call to syswrite(), the loop pauses for 1 second.

The odd construction 1 until sleep 1 guarantees that the script sleeps for a minimum of 1 second each time through the loop. Otherwise, every time we press the interrupt key, sleep() is terminated prematurely and we don't get writes that are spaced evenly.

When we run the client, it runs for thirty iterations (about 30 s) and quits. If we hit the interrupt key a couple of times during that period, we see the following messages:

% urg_send.pl
 sending 2 bytes of normal data: aa
 sending 2 bytes of normal data: ab
 sending 1 byte of OOB data!
 sending 2 bytes of normal data: ac
 sending 2 bytes of normal data: ad
 sending 2 bytes of normal data: ae
 sending 1 byte of OOB data!
 sending 2 bytes of normal data: af
 

Now we turn our attention to the server (Figure 17.3), which is only a bit more complicated than the client. The server installs an URG handler that will be invoked whenever urgent data arrives on the socket. However, in order for the operating system to know to deliver the URG signal, we must associate our process ID (PID) with the socket by calling fcntl() with a command of F_SETOWN and our PID as its argument.

Figure 17.3. A server that processes urgent data

graphics/17fig03.gif

Lines 16: Load modules In addition to IO::Socket, we load the Fcntl module. This provides the definition for the F_SETOWN constant.

Lines 711: Install URG handler We install an anonymous subroutine, which tries to recv() 1 byte of urgent data on the socket using the idiom we gave earlier. If recv() is successful, we print an acknowledgment; otherwise, we get an error. Notice that even though we ask to receive 100 bytes of data, the protocol restrictions allow only 1 byte of urgent data to be delivered. This server will confirm that fact.

Lines 1216: Create socket and accept() an incoming connection We create a listen socket and accept() a single incoming connection on it, storing the connected socket in $sock This is not a general-purpose server, so we don't bother with an accept() loop.

Lines 1718: Set the owner of the socket We pass the connected socket to fcntl(), with a command of F_SETOWN and the current process ID stored in $$ as the argument. This sets the owner of the socket so that we receive the URG signal.

Lines 1922: Read data from the socket We use sysread() to read conventional data from the socket until we reach the end of file. Everything we read is echoed to standard output.

When we run the server and client together and interrupt the client twice, we see output like this:

% urg_recv.pl
 Listening on port 2007...
 got 2 bytes of normal data: aa
 got 2 bytes of normal data: ab
 got 1 byte of OOB data!
 got 2 bytes of normal data: ac
 got 2 bytes of normal data: ad
 got 2 bytes of normal data: ae
 got 1 byte of OOB data!
 got 2 bytes of normal data: af
 ...
 

Notice that the urgent data never appears in the normal data stream read by sysread().

As written, there is a potential race condition in this server. It is possible for urgent data to come in during or soon after the call to accept(), but before fcntl() has set the owner of the socket. In this case, the server misses the urgent data signal. This may or may not be an issue for your application. If it is, you could either

  • engineer the client to introduce a brief delay after establishing the connection but before sending out urgent data; or

  • apply fcntl() to the listening socket, in which case the owner setting is inherited by all connected sockets returned by accept().

The SO_OOBINLINE Option

By default, TCP urgent data can be recovered only by calling recv() with the MSG_OOB flag. Internally, the operating system extracts and reserves incoming urgent data so that it doesn't mingle with the normal data stream.

However, if you would prefer that the urgent data remain inline and appear amidst the normal data, you can use the SO_OOBLINE option. This option can be set with the IO::Socket sockopt() method or using the built-in setsockopt() function. Sockets with this option set return urgent data inline. The URG signal continues to be sent, but calling recv() with MSG_OOB can no longer be used to retrieve the urgent data and, in fact, will return an EINVAL error.

The SO_OOBLINE option affects only the side of the connection that it is called on; it has no effect on how urgent data is handled at the remote end. Likewise, it affects only the way that incoming urgent data is handled, not the way it is sent.

To demonstrate the effect of inlining on the server from Figure 17. 3, we can add the appropriate sockopt() call to the line beneath the call to accept():

$sock = $listen->accept;
 $sock->sockopt(SO_OOBINLINE,1);  # enable inline urgent data
 

Running the server and client together and generating a couple of interrupts now shows this pattern:

% urg_recv2.pl
 Listening on port 2007...
 got 2 bytes of normal data: aa
 got 2 bytes of normal data: ab
 recv() error: Invalid argument
 got 1 bytes of normal data: !
 got 2 bytes of normal data: ac
 got 2 bytes of normal data: ad
 got 2 bytes of normal data: ae
 recv() error: Invalid argument
 got 1 bytes of normal data: !
 got 2 bytes of normal data: af
 

Each time an urgent data byte is received, the server's URG handler is called, just as before. However, because the data is now inline, the recv() call fails with an error of EINVAL. The urgent data (an exclamation mark character) instead appears in the data stream read by sysread().

Notice that the urgent data always appears at the beginning of the data returned by a sysread() call. This is no coincidence. A feature of the urgent data API is that reads terminate at the urgent data pointer even if the caller requested more data. In the case of inline data, the next byte read by sysread() will be the urgent data itself. In the case of out-of-band data, the next byte read will be the character that follows the urgent data.

Using select() with Urgent Data

If you prefer not to intercept the URG signal, you can use either select() or poll() to detect the presence of urgent data. Urgent data appears as available "exception" data when using select() and as POLLPRI data when using poll().

Figure 17.4 shows another implementation of the urgent data server application using the IO::Select class. In this example, the server sets up two IO::Select objects, one for normal reads and the other for reading urgent data. It then selects between them using IO::Select->select(). If select() indicates that urgent data is available, we retrieve it using recv(). Otherwise, we read from the normal data stream using sysread().

Figure 17.4. An urgent data receiver implemented using select()

graphics/17fig04.gif

Regrettably, this server needs to use a trick because of an idiosyncrasy of select(). Many implementations of select() continue to indicate that a socket has urgent data to read even after the program has called recv(), but calling recv() a second time fails with an EINVAL error because the urgent data buffer has already been emptied. This condition persists until at least 1 byte of normal data has been read from the socket and, unless handled properly, the program goes into a tight loop after receiving urgent data.

To work around this problem, we manage a flag called $ok_to_read_oob. This flag is set every time we read normal data and cleared every time we read urgent data. At the top of the select() loop, we add the socket to the list to be monitored for urgent data if and only if the flag is true.

From the user's perspective, urg_recv3.pl behaves identically with urg_recv.pl. When we run it in one terminal and the urg_send.pl client in another, we see the following output when we press the interrupt key repeatedly in the client:

% urg_recv3.pl
 Listening on port 2007...
 got 2 bytes of normal data: aa
 got 2 bytes of normal data: ab
 got 2 bytes of normal data: ac
 got 2 bytes of normal data: ad
 got 1 bytes of urgent data: !
 got 2 bytes of normal data: ae
 got 1 bytes of urgent data: !
 got 2 bytes of normal data: af
 ...
 

The sockatmark() Function

The most common use of urgent data is to mark a section of the TCP stream as invalid so that it can be discarded. For example, the UNIX rlogin (remote login) server uses this feature to accommodate the user's urgent request to kill a runaway remote program. It isn't sufficient for the rlogin server to terminate the program, because it may have already transmitted substantial output to the rlogin client at the user's end of the connection. The server must tell the client to ignore all output up to the point at which the user hit the interrupt key. This is where the sockatmark() function comes in:

$flag = sockatmark($socket)

sockatmark() is used to determine the location of the urgent data pointer. In the normal out-of-band case, sock_atmark() returns true if the next sysread() will return the byte following the urgent data. In the case of SO_OOBINLINE sockets, sock_atmark() returns true if the next sysread() will return the urgent data itself.

Recall that sysread() always pauses at the location of the urgent pointer. The reason for this feature is to give the process a chance to call sockatmark(). This code fragment shows the idiom:

# read until we get to the mark
 until (sockatmark($socket)) {
    my $result = sysread($socket,$data,1024);
    die "socket closed before reaching mark" unless $result;
 }
 

Each time through, sysread() is called to read (and in this case discard) 1,024 bytes of data from the socket. The loop terminates normally when the urgent data pointer is reached, or abnormally if the socket is closed (or encounters another error) before the urgent pointer is found. After the loop ends, the next read will return the urgent data byte if the SO_OOBINLINE option was set or, if the option was unset, it returns the normal data byte following that.

Implementing sockatmark()

Although the sockatmark() function is part of the POSIX standard, it hasn't yet made it into Perl as a built-in function, or, indeed, into the standard libraries of many operating systems. To use it, you must call your own version using an ioctl() call.

$result = ioctl($handle, $command, $operand)

Perl's ioctl() function is similar to fcntl() (Chapter 13), accepting a previously opened filehandle as the first argument, an integer constant corresponding to the command to perform as the second, and an operand to pass or receive data from the operation. The format of the operand depends on the operation. The function returns undef if the ioctl() call failed; otherwise, it returns a true value.

To implement the sockatmark() function, we must call ioctl() with a command of SIOCATMARK, the constant value for which can be found in a converted C header file, typically sys/ioctl.ph. After calling ioctl(), the operand is filled with a packed integer argument containing 1 if the socket is currently at the urgent data mark and 0 otherwise:

require "sys/ioctl.ph";
 sub sockatmark {
   my $s = shift;
   my $d;
   return unless ioctl($s,SIOCATMARK,$d);
   return unpack("i",$d) != 0;
 }
 

This looks simple, but there's a hitch. The particular header file needed is not standard across all operating systems and is variously named sys/ioctl.ph, sys/socket.ph, sys/sockio. ph, or sys/sockios.ph. This makes it difficult to write portable code. Furthermore, none of these converted header files is part of the standard Perl distribution, but they must be created manually using a finicky and sometimes unreliable Perl script called h2ph. This tool is documented in the online POD documentation, but the capsule usage is as follows:

% cd /usr/include
 % h2ph -r -l .
 						

This assumes that you are using a UNIX system that keeps its header files in /usr/include. Users of other operating systems that have a C or C++ compiler installed must locate their compiler's header directory and run h2ph from there. Even then, h2ph occasionally generates incorrect Perl code and the resulting .ph files may need to be patched by hand.

Having generated the converted header files, we're still stuck with having to guess which one contains the SIOCATMARK constant. One approach is to try several possibilities until one works. The following code snippet first uses a hard-coded value for Win32 systems, and then tries a series of possible .ph file paths. If none succeeds, it dies.

$^O eq 'Win32'      && eval "sub SIOCATMARK { 0x40047307 }";
 defined &SIOCATMARK || eval { require "sys/ioctl.ph"   };
 defined &SIOCATMARK || eval { require "sys/socket.ph"  };
 defined &SIOCATMARK || eval { require "sys/sockio.ph"  };
 defined &SIOCATMARK || eval { require "sys/sockios.ph" };
 defined &SIOCATMARK or die "Can't determine value for SIOCATMARK";
 

Figure 17.5 lists a small module named Sockatmark.pm that implements the sockatmark() call. When loaded, it adds an atmark() method to the IO::Socket class, allowing you to interrogate the socket directly:

Figure 17.5. The Sockatmark.pm module

graphics/17fig05.gif

use Sockatmark;
 warn "at the mark" if $sock->atmark;
 

Alternatively, you can explicitly import the sockatmark() function in the use line:

use Sockatmark 'sockatmark';
 warn "at the mark" if sockatmark($sock);
 

A Travesty Server

We now have all the ingredients necessary to write a client/server pair that does something useful with urgent data. This server implements "travesty," a Markov chain algorithm that analyzes a text document and generates a new document that preserves all the word-pair (tuple) frequencies of the original. The result is a completely incomprehensible document that has an eerie similarity to the writing style of the original. For example, here's an excerpt from the text generated after running the previous chapter through the travesty algorithm:

It initiates an EWOULDBLOCK error. The urgent data signal. This may be several such messages from different children. The parent will start a new document that explains the problem in %STATUS. Just before the urgent data is because this version can handle up to the EWOULDBLOCK error constant. The last two versions of interrupts now shows this pattern: Each time through, sysread() is called the "thundering herd" phenomenon. More seriously, however, some operating systems may not already at its maximum.

The results of running Ernest Hemingway through the wringer are similarly amusing. Oddly, James Joyce's later works seem to be entirely unaffected by this translation.

The client/server pair in this example divides the work in the classical manner. The client runs the user interface. It prompts the user for commands to load text files into the analyzer, generate the travesty, and reset the word frequency tables. The server does the heavy lifting, constructing the Markov model from uploaded files and generating travesties of arbitrary length.

TCP urgent data is useful in this application because it frequently takes longer for the server to analyze the word tuple frequencies in an uploaded text file than for the client to upload it. The user may wish to abort the upload midway, in which case the client must send the server an urgent signal to stop processing the file and to ignore all data sent from the time the user interrupted the process.

Conversely, once the tuple frequency tables are created, the server has the ability to generate travesty text far faster than the network can transfer it. We would like the user to be able to interrupt the incoming text stream, again by issuing an urgent data signal.

The client/server pair requires three external modules in addition to the standard ones: Sockatmark, which we have already seen; Text::Travesty, the travesty generator; and IO::Getline, the nonblocking replacement for Perl's getline() function, which we developed in Chapter 13 (Figure 13.2). In this case we won't be using IO::Getline for its nonblocking features, but for its ability to clear its internal line buffer when the flush() method is called.

The Text::Travesty Module

The travesty algorithm is encapsulated in a small module named Text::Travesty. Its source code list is in Appendix A; it may also be available on CPAN. It is adapted from a small demo application that comes in the eg/ directory of the Perl distribution. Like other modules in this book, it is object-oriented. You start by creating a new Text::Travesty object with Text::Travesty->new():

$t = Text::Travesty->new;
 

You then call add() one or more times to analyze the word tuple frequencies in a section of text:

$t->add($text);
 

Once the text is analyzed, you can generate a travesty with calls to generate() or pretty_text():

$travesty = $t->generate(1000);
 $wrapped  = $t->pretty_text(2000);
 

Both methods take a numeric argument that indicates the length of the generated travesty, measured in words. The difference between the two methods is that generate() creates unwrapped raw text, while pretty_text() invokes Perl's Text::Wrap module to create nicely indented and wrapped paragraphs.

The words() method returns the number of unique words in the frequency tables. reset() clears the tables and readies the object to receive fresh data to analyze:

$word_count = $t->words;
 $t->reset;
 

The Travesty Server Design

In addition to its main purpose of showing the handling of urgent data, the travesty server illustrates a number of common design motifs in client/server communications.

  1. The server is line oriented. After receiving an incoming connection, it issues a welcome banner and then enters a loop in which it reads a line from the socket, parses the command, and takes the appropriate action. The following commands are recognized:

    DATA Prepare to receive text data to analyze. The server reads an indefinite amount of incoming information, terminating when it sees a dot (" . ") on a line by itself. The text is passed to Text::Travesty to construct frequency tables.

    RESET Reset the travesty frequency tables to empty.

    GENERATE < word_count> Generate a travesty from the stored frequency tables. word_count is a positive integer specifying the length of the travesty to generate. The server indicates the end of the travesty by sending a dot on a line by itself.

    BYE Terminate the connection.

  2. The server responds to each command by sending a response line like the following:

    205 Travesty reset
     

    The initial three-digit result code is what the client pays attention to. The human-readable text is designed for remote debugging.

  3. As an additional aid to debugging, the server uses CRLF pairs for all incoming commands and outgoing responses. This makes the server compatible with Telnet and other common network clients.

Figure 17.6 lists the server application.

Figure 17.6. Travesty server

graphics/17fig06.gif

Lines 112: Load modules and initialize signal handlers The travesty server follows the familiar accept-and-fork architecture. In addition to the usual networking packages, we load Fcntl in order to get access to the F_SETOWN constant and the Text::Travesty, IO::Getline, and Sockatmark modules. Recall that the latter adds the atmark() method to the IO::Socket class. We also define a constant, DEBUG, which enables debugging messages, and a global to hold the IO::Getline object.

After loading the required modules, we set up two signal handlers. The CHLD handler is the usual one used in accept-and-fork servers. We initially tell Perl to ignore URG signals. We'll reenable them in the places where they have meaning, during the uploading and downloading of large data streams.

Lines 1326: Create listening socket and enter accept loop The server creates a listening socket and enters its accept() loop. Each incoming connection spawns a child that runs the handle_connection() subroutine. After handle_connection() terminates, the child dies.

Lines 2749: The handle_connection() subroutine handle_connection() is responsible for managing the Text::Travesty object, reading client commands from the socket, and handing the command off to the appropriate subroutine. We begin by calling fcntl() to set the owner of the socket so that the process can receive urgent signals. If this is successful, we set the line termination character to the CRLF pair using local to dynamically scope the change in the $/ global variable to the current block and all subroutines it invokes.

We now create a new Text::Travesty object and an IO::Getline wrapper for the socket. Recall from Chapter 13 that IO::Getline has nonblocking behavior by default. In this application, we don't use its nonblocking features, so we turn blocking back on after creating the wrapper. The IO::Getline wrapper is global to the package so as to allow the URG handler to find it; since this server uses a different process to service each incoming connection, this use of a global won't cause problems.

Having finished our initialization, we write our welcome banner to the client, using result code 200. Notice that the IO::Getline module accepts all the object methods of IO::Socket, including syswrite(). This makes the code easier to read than would calling the getline object's handle() method each time to recover the underlying socket.

The remainder of the handle_connection() code is the command-processing loop. Each time through the loop, we read a line, parse it, and take the appropriate action. The BYE command is handled directly in the loop, and the others are passed to an appropriate subroutine. If a command isn't recognized, the server issues a 500 error.

Lines 5065: The analyze_file() subroutine The analyze_file() subroutine processes uploaded data. It accepts a Text::Travesty object, reinitializes it by calling its reset() method, and then transmits a 201 message, which prompts the remote host to upload some text data.

We're now going to accept uploaded data from the client by calling $gl->getline() repeatedly until we encounter a line consisting of a dot, or until we are interrupted by an URG signal.

To terminate the loop cleanly, we wrap it in inside an eval{} block and create an URG handler that is local to the block. If an urgent signal comes in, the handler calls the subroutine do_urgent() and then dies. Because die() is called within an eval{}, its effect is to terminate the eval{} block and continue execution at the first statement after the eval{}.

Before exiting, we transmit a code 202 message giving the number of unique words we processed, regardless of whether the upload was interrupted. Notice that we treat interrupted file transfers just as if the uploaded file ended early. We leave the travesty generator in whatever state it happened to be in when the URG signal was received. Because the travesty generator is not affected by the analysis of a partial file, this causes no harm and might be construed as a feature. Another application might want to reset itself to a known state.

Lines 6688: The make_travesty() subroutine The make_travesty() subroutine is responsible for generating the travesty text and transmitting it to the client. Its arguments are the Text::Travesty object and the size of the travesty to generate. We first check that the travesty object is not empty; if it is, we return with an error message. Otherwise, we transmit a code 203 message indicating that the travesty text will follow.

We're going to transmit the mangled text now. As in the previous subroutine, we enter an I/O loop wrapped in an eval{}, and again install a local URG handler that runs do_urgent() and dies. If the socket enters urgent mode, our download loop is terminated immediately. This time, however, our URG handler also sets a local variable named $abort to true. The loop calls the travesty object's pretty_text() method to generate up to 500 words, replaces newline characters with the CRLF sequence, and writes out the resulting text. At the end of the loop, we transmit a lone dot.

If the transmission was aborted, we must tell the client to discard data left in the socket stream. We do this by sending an urgent data byte back to the client using this idiom:

if ($abort) {
   warn "make_travesty() aborted\n" if DEBUG;
   $gl->send('!',MSG_OOB);
   }
 }
 

Again, notice that the send() method is passed by IO::Getline to the underlying IO::Socket object.

Lines 8993: The reset_travesty() subroutine reset_travesty() calls the travesty object's reset() method and transmits a message acknowledging that the word frequency tables have been cleared.

Lines 94108: The do_urgent() signal handler do_urgent() is the signal handler responsible for emptying the internal read buffer when an urgent data byte is received. We recover the socket from the global IO::Getline object and invoke sysread() in a tight loop until the socket's atmark() method returns true. This discards any and all data up to the urgent byte.

We then invoke recv() to read the urgent data itself. The exact contents of the urgent data have no particular meaning to this application, so we ignore it. When this is done, we clear out any of the remaining data in the IO::Getline object's internal buffer by calling its flush() method. The end result of these manipulations is that all unread data transmitted up to and including the urgent data byte is discarded.

The Travesty Client

Now we look at the client (Figure 17.7). It is slightly more complex than the server because it has to receive commands from the user, forward them to the server, and interpret the server's status codes appropriately.

Figure 17.7. Travesty client

graphics/17fig07.gif

Lines 19: Load modules We turn on strict type checking and load the required networking modules, including the Sockatmark module developed in this chapter. We also make STDOUT nonbuffered so that the user's command prompt appears immediately.

Lines 1012: Set up globals The $HOST and $PORT globals contain the remote hostname and port number to use. If not provided on the command line, they default to reasonable values. Two other globals are used by the script. $gl contains the IO::Getline object that wraps the connected socket, and $quit_now contains a flag that indicates that the program should exit. Both are global so that they can be accessed by signal handlers.

Lines 1315: Set up default signal handlers We set up some signal handlers. The QUIT signal, ordinarily generated from the keyboard by ^\, is used to terminate the program. INT, however, is a bit more interesting. Each time the handler executes, it increments the $quit_now global by one. If the variable reaches 2 or higher, the program exits. Otherwise, the handler prints " Press ^C again to exit." The result is that to terminate the program, the user must press the interrupt key twice without intervening commands. This prevents the user from quitting the program when she intended to interrupt output. The URG handler is set to run the do_urgent() subroutine, which we will examine later.

Lines 1618: Create connected socket We try to create an IO::Socket handle connected to the remote host. If successful, we use fcntl() to set the socket's owner to the current process ID so that we receive URG signals.

Lines 1922: Create IO::Getline wrapper We create a new IO::Getline wrapper on the socket, turn blocking behavior back on, and immediately look for the welcome banner from the host by pattern matching for the 200 result code. If no result code is present, we die with an appropriate error message.

Lines 2336: Command loop We now enter the program's main command loop. Each time through the loop, we print a command prompt (">") and read a line of user input from standard input. We parse the command and call the appropriate subroutine. User commands are:

  • analyzeUpload and analyze a text file

  • generate NNNNGenerate NNNN words of travesty

  • resetReset frequency tables

  • byeQuit the program

  • goodbyeQuit the program

The command loop's continue{} block sets $quit_now to 0, resetting the global INT counter.

Lines 3760: The do_analyze() subroutine The do_analyze() subroutine is called to upload a text file to the server for analysis. The subroutine receives a file path as its argument and tries to open it using IO::File. If the file can't be opened, we issue a warning and return. Otherwise, we send the server the DATA command and the response line. If the response matches the expected 201 result code, we proceed. Otherwise, we echo the response to standard error and return.

We now begin to upload the text file to the server. As in the server code, the upload is done in an eval{} block, but in this case it is the INT signal that we catch. Before entering the block, we set a local variable $abort to false. Within the block we create a local INT handler that prints a warning, sets $abort to true, and dies, causing the eval{} block to terminate. By declaring the handler local, we temporarily replace the original INT handler, and restore it automatically when the eval{} block is finished. Within the block itself we read from the text file one line at a time and send it to the server. When the file is finished, we send the server a "." character.

After finishing the loop, we check the $abort variable. If it is true, then the transfer was interrupted prematurely when the user hit the interrupt key. We need to alert the server to this fact so that it can ignore any data that we've sent it that it hasn't processed yet. This is done by sending the server 1 byte of urgent data.

The last step is to read the response line from the server and print the number of unique words successfully processed.

Lines 6167: Handle the reset and bye commands The do_reset() subroutine sends a RESET command to the server and checks the result code. do_bye() sends a BYE command to the server, but in this case does not check the result code because the program is about to exit anyway.

Lines 6890: The do get() subroutine The do_get() subroutine is called when the user chooses to generate a travesty from a previously uploaded file. We receive an argument consisting of the number of words of travesty to generate, which we pass on to the server in the form of a GENERATE command. We then read the response from the server and proceed only if it is the expected 203 "travesty follows" code.

We are now ready to read the travesty from the server. The logic is similar to the do_analyze() subroutine. We set the local variable $abort to a false value and enter a loop that is wrapped in an eval{}. For the duration of the loop, the default INT handler is replaced with one that increments $abort and dies, terminating the eval{} block. The loop accepts lines from the server, removes the CRLF pairs with chomp(), and prints them to standard output with proper newlines. The loop terminates normally when it encounters a line consisting of one dot.

After the loop is done, we check the $abort variable for abnormal termination. If it is set to a true value, then we send the server an urgent data byte, telling it to stop transmission. Recall that this also results in the server sending back an urgent data byte to indicate the point at which transmission was halted.

Lines 91104: The do_urgent() subroutine The do_urgent() subroutine handles URG signals and is identical to the subroutine of the same name in the server. It discards everything in the socket up to and including the urgent data byte and resets the contents of the IO::Getline object.

Lines 105113: Print the program usage print_usage() provides a terse command summary that is displayed whenever the user types an unrecognized command.

Testing the Travesty Server

To test the travesty client/server, I launched the server on one machine and the client on another, in both cases leaving the DEBUG constant true so that I could see debugging messages.

For the first test, I uploaded the file ch17.txt with the ANALYZE command and waited for the upload to complete. I then issued the command generate 100 in order to generate 100 words of travesty:

% trav_cli.pl prego.lsjs.org
 > analyze /home/lstein/docs/ch17.txt
 analyzing...processed 2658 words
 > generate 100
 
    Summary This will be blocked in flock() until the process receives
    a signal to the top of the preforking server that you can provide
    an optional timeout value to return if no events occur within a 
    designated period. The handles() method returns a nonempty list.
    
    At the very top of the program simply terminates with an error 
    message to the named pipe (also known as an "event"). Each child 
    process IDs. Its keys are the children. Only one of its termination.
    However in an EWOULDBLOCK error. The urgent data containing the 
    character "!"
 

The next step was to test that I could interrupt uploads. I ran the analyze command again, but this time hit the interrupt key before the analysis was complete:

> analyze /home/lstein/docs/ch17.txt
 analyzing...interrupted!...processed 879 words
 

The message indicates that only 879 of 2,658 unique words were processed this time, confirming that the upload was aborted prematurely. Meanwhile, on the server's side of the connection, the server's do_urgent() URG handler emitted the following debug messages as it discarded all data through to the urgent pointer:

command = DATA
 discarding 1024 bytes
 discarding 1024 bytes
 discarding 1024 bytes
 discarding 1024 bytes
 discarding 531 bytes
 reading 1 byte of urgent data
 

The final test was to confirm that I could interrupt travesty generation. I issued the command generate 20000 to generate a very long 20,000-word travesty, then hit the interrupt key as soon as text started to appear.

> reset
 reset successful
 > analyze /home/lstein/docs/ch17.txt
 analyzing...processed 2658 words
 > generate 20000
 
      to the segment has already been created by a series of possible
    .ph file paths. If none succeeds, it dies: Figure 7.4: This 
    preforking server won't actually close it until all the data bound 
    for the status hash, and DEBUG is a simple solution is to copy the 
    contents of the socket or STDIN will be inhibited until the process
    receives an INT or TERM signal handlers are parent-specific. So we
    don't want to do this while there is significant complexity lurking
    under the surface. TCP urgent data. Otherwise the [interrupted]
    discarding 1024 bytes of data
    discarding 1024 bytes of data
    discarding 855 bytes of data
    reading 1 byte of urgent data
 

As expected, the transmission was interrupted and the client's URG signal handler printed out a series of debug messages as it discarded data leading up to the server's urgent data.

The IO::Sockatmark Module

Because of the difficulty in using h2ph to generate the .ph files required by the Sockatmark.pm module, I have recently written a C-language extension module names IO::Sockatmark. It is available on CPAN, and on this book's companion site. If you have encounter problems getting the pure-Perl version of Sockatmark.pm to work, I suggest you replace it with IO::Sockatmark. You will need a C compiler to do this.

The modifications required to use IO::Sockatmark in the "travesty" code examples are very minor. In Figures 17.6 and 17.7, simply change:

use Sockatmark;
 

to

use IO::Sockatmark;
 

Chapter 18. The UDP Protocol

Up to now we have focused exclusively on applications that use the TCP protocol and have said little about the User Datagram Protocol, or UDP. This is because TCP is generally easier to use, more reliable, and more familiar to programmers who are used to dealing with files and pipes. On the Internet, TCP-based applications protocols outnumber those based on UDP by a factor of at least 10 to 1.

Nevertheless, UDP is extremely useful for certain applications, and sometimes can do things that would be difficult, if not impossible, for a TCP-based service to achieve. The next few chapters introduce UDP, discuss the design of UDP-based servers, and show how to use UDP for broadcasting and multicasting applications.

A Time of Day Client

We'll start our discussion with udp_daytime_cli.pl, a UDP-based network client for the daytime service. As you might recall from Chapters 1 and 3, the TCP-based daytime service waits for an incoming connection and responds with a single CRLF-delimited line that contains the time and date at the server's machine. The UDP version of the daytime service is similar, but behaves slightly differently because it's a datagram-based service. Instead of waiting for incoming connections, the UDP service waits for incoming datagrams. When it receives a datagram, it examines the sender's address and then transmits to this address a return datagram that contains the current time and date. No connection is involved.

Our client takes up to two command-line arguments: the name of the daytime host to query and a port to connect to. By default, the program tries to contact a server running on the local host using the standard daytime service port number (13). Here's a sample session:

% udp_daytime_cli.pl wuarchive.wustl.edu
 Wed Aug 16 21:29:54 2000
 

The client is different from the TCP-based programs we are more familiar with. Figure 18.1 shows the complete code for this program.

Figure 18.1. udp_daytime_cli.pl gets the time of day

graphics/18fig01.gif

Lines 15: Load modules We begin by turning on strict code checking and then bring in the standard Socket library and its line-end constants. We set $/ to CRLF, not because we'll be performing line-oriented reads, but in order for the chomp() call at the end of the script to remove the terminating CRLF properly.

Lines 68: Define constants We define some constant values. DEFAULT_HOST is the name of the host to contact if not specified on the command line; we use the loopback address, "localhost." DEFAULT_PORT is the port to contact if not overridden on the command line; it can be either the port number or a symbolic service name. We use "daytime" as the service name.

UDP data is transmitted and received as discrete messages. MAX_MSG_LEN specifies the maximum size of a message. Since the daytime strings are only a few characters, it is safe to set this constant to a relatively small value of 100 bytes.

Lines 910: Read command-line arguments We read the command-line arguments into the $host and $port global variables; if these variables are not provided, we use the defaults.

Lines 1113: Get protocol and port We use getprotobyname() to get the protocol number for UDP and call getservbyname() to look up the port number for the daytime service. If the user provided the port number directly, we skip the last step. We declare an empty variable named $data to receive the message transmitted by the remote host.

Line 14: Create the socket We create the socket by calling Perl's built-in socket() function. We use AF_INET for the domain, creating an Internet socket, SOCK_DGRAM for the type, creating a datagram-style socket, and the previously derived protocol number for UDP.

If successful, socket() returns a true value and assigns a socket to the filehandle. Otherwise, the call returns undef and we die with an error message.

Line 15: Create the destination address The final preparatory step is to create the destination address for outgoing messages. We call inet_aton() to turn the hostname into a packed string and pack this with the port into a sockaddr_in structure, using the function of the same name.

Line 16: Send the request We now have a socket and a destination address. The next step is to send a message to the server to tell it that it has a customer waiting. With the daytime service, one can send any message (even an empty one) and the server will respond with the time of day.

To send the message, we call the send() function. send() takes four arguments: the socket name, the message to send, the message flags, and the destination to send it to. For the message contents we use the string "What time is it?" but any string would do. We pass a 0 for the message flags in order to accept the defaults. For the destination address, we use the packed sockaddr_in address that we built earlier.

If the message is correctly queued for delivery, send() returns a true value. Otherwise, we die with an error message.

Line 17: Receive response The message has now been sent (or at least successfully queued), so we wait for a response using the recv() function. Like send(), this call also takes several arguments, including the socket, a variable in which to store the received data, and a numeric value indicating the maximum length of the message that we will receive.

If a message is received, recv() copies up to MAX_MSG_LEN bytes of it into $data. In case of an error, recv() returns undef, and we exit with an error message. Otherwise, recv() returns the packed address of the sender. We don't do anything with the sender's address but will put it to good use in the server examples given in later sections.

Lines 1819: Print the response We remove the CRLF at the end of the message with chomp() and print its contents to standard output.

Creating and Using UDP Sockets

As shown in the example of the last section, UDP datagrams are sent and received via sockets. However, unlike TCP sockets, there is no step in which you connect() the socket or accept() an incoming connection. Instead, you can start transmitting and receiving messages via the socket as soon as you create it.

UDP Socket Creation

To create a UDP socket, call socket() with an address family of AF_INET, a socket type of SOCK_DGRAM, and the UDP protocol number. The AF_INET and SOCK_DGRAM constants are defined and exported by default by the Socket module, but you should use getprotobyname(" udp ") to fetch the protocol number. Here is the idiom using the built-in socket() function:

socket(SOCK, AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, scalar getprotobyname('udp'))
    or die "socket() failed: $!";
 

The send() and recv() Functions

Once you have created a UDP socket, you can use it as an endpoint for communication immediately. The send() function is used to transmit datagrams, and recv() is used to receive them. We've seen send() and recv() before in the context of sending and receiving TCP urgent data (Chapter 17). To send a datagram, the idiom is this:

$bytes = send (SOCK,$message,$flags,$dest_addr);
 

Using socket SOCK, send() sends the message data that is contained in $message to the destination indicated by $dest_addr. The $flags argument, which in addition to controlling TCP out-of-band data can be used to adjust esoteric routing parameters, should be set to 0. The destination address must be a packed socket address created by sockaddr_in(). Like all other INET addresses, the address includes the port number and IP address of the destination.

send() will return the number of bytes successfully queued for delivery. If for some reason it couldn't queue the message, send() returns undef and sets $! to the relevant error message. Note that a positive response from send() does not mean that the message was successfully delivered, or even that it was placed on the network wire. All this means is that the operating system has successfully copied the message into the local send buffer. UDP is unreliable and guarantees nothing.

Having used a socket to send a message to one destination address, a program can turn right around and use send() to send a second message to a different destination. Unlike TCP, in the UDP protocol there is no long-term relationship between a socket and its peer.

To receive a UDP message, call recv(). This function also takes four arguments, and uses this idiom:

$sender = recv (SOCK,$data,$max_size,$flags);
 

In this case $data is a scalar that receives the contents of the message, $max_size is the maximum size of the datagram that you can accept, and $flags should once again be set to 0. The recv() call will block until a datagram is received. On receipt of a message, recv() returns the message contents in $data and the packed address of the sender in the function result. The sender address is provided so that you can reply to the sender.

If the received datagram is larger than $max_size, it will be truncated. If some error occurs, recv() returns undef and sets $! to the appropriate error code.

If you are familiar with the C-language socket API, you should know that the Perl recv() function is actually implemented on top of the C language recvfrom() call, not the recv() call itself.

Binding a UDP Socket

By default, the operating system assigns to a new UDP socket an unused ephemeral port number and a wildcard IP address of INADDR_ANY. Clients can usually accept this default, because when the client transmits a request to a server, its UDP datagram contains this return address, allowing the server to return a response.

However, a server application usually wants to bind its socket to a well-known port so that clients can rendezvous with it. To do this, call bind() in the same way you would with a TCP socket. For example, to bind a UDP socket to port 8000, you might use the following code fragment:

my $local_addr = sockaddr_in(8000,INADDR_ANY);
 bind (SOCK,$local_addr) or die "bind(): $!";
 

Once a UDP socket is bound, many systems do not allow it to be rebound to a different address.

Connecting a UDP Socket

Although it seems like an oxymoron, it is possible to call connect() with a UDP socket. No actual connection is attempted; instead the system stores the specified destination address of the connect() function and uses this as the destination for all subsequent calls to send(). You can retrieve this address using getpeername().

After the UDP socket is connected, send() will accept only the first three arguments. You should not try to specify a destination address as the fourth argument, or you will get an "invalid argument" error. This is convenient for clients that wish to communicate only with a single UDP server. After connecting the socket, clients can send() to the same server multiple times without having to give the destination address repeatedly.

Should you wish to change the destination address, you may do so by calling connect() again with the new address. Although the C-language equivalent of this call allows you to dissolve the association by connecting to a NULL address, Perl does not provide easy access to this functionality.

A nice side effect of connecting a datagram socket is that such a socket can receive messages only from the designated peer. Messages sent to the socket from other hosts or from other ports on the peer host are ignored. This can add a modicum of security to a client program. However, connecting a datagram socket does not change its basic behavior: It remains message oriented and unreliable.

Servers that typically must receive and send messages to multiple clients should generally not connect their sockets.

UDP Errors

UDP errors are a little unusual because they can occur asynchronously. Consider what happens when you use send() to transmit a UDP datagram to aremote host that has no program listening on the specified port. With TCP, you would get a "connection refused" (ECONNREFUSED) error on the call to connect(). Similarly, a problem at the remote end, such as the server going down, will be reported synchronously the next time you read or write to the socket.

UDP is different. The return value from send() tells you nothing about whether the message was delivered at the remote end, because send() simply returns true if the message is successfully queued by the operating system. In the event that no server is listening at the other end and you go on to call recv(), the call blocks forever, because no reply from the host is forthcoming.[1]

[1] Of course, this could also happen if either your request or the server's response is lost in transit.

Asynchronous Errors

There is, however, a way to recover some information on UDP communications errors. If a UDP socket has been connected, it is possible to receive asynchronous errors. These are errors that occur at some point after sending a datagram, and include ECONNREFUSED errors, host unreachable messages from routers, and other problems.

Asynchronous errors are not detected by send(), because this always reports success if the datagram was successfully queued. Instead, after an asynchronous error occurs, the next call to recv() returns an undef value and sets $! to the appropriate error message. It is also possible to recover and clear the asynchronous error by calling getsockopt() with the SO_ERROR command.

You may also use select() on a UDP socket to determine whether an asynchronous error is available. The socket will appear to be readable, and recv() will not block.

The implementation of UDP on Linux systems differs somewhat from this description. On such systems, asynchronous errors are always returned regardless of whether or not a socket is connected. In addition, if the network is sufficiently fast, it is sometimes possible for send() to detect and report datagram delivery errors as well.

Dropped Packets and Fragmentation

The most common UDP errors are not easily detected. As described in Chapter 3, UDP messages can be lost in transit or arrive in a different order from that in which they were sent. Because there is no flow control in the UDP protocol and each host has only finite buffer space for received datagrams, if a host receives datagrams faster than the application can read them, then excess datagrams will be dropped silently.

Although datagrams can, in theory, be as large as 65,535 bytes, in practice the size is limited by the maximum transmission unit (MTU) of the network media. Beyond this size, the datagram will be fragmented into multiple pieces, and the receiving operating system will try to reassemble it. If any of the pieces were lost in transmission, then the whole datagram is discarded.

On Ethernet networks, the MTU is 1,500 bytes. However, some of the links that a datagram may traverse across the Internet may use an MTU as small as 576 bytes. For this reason, it's best to keep UDP messages smaller than this limit.

Provided that a datagram is received at all, its contents are guaranteed by a checksum that the TCP/IP protocol places on each packetthat is, if the application hasn't deliberately turned off the UDP checksum.

Sending to Multiple Hosts

One of the nice features of UDP is that the same socket can be used to send to and receive messages from multiple hosts. To illustrate this, let's rewrite the daytime client so that it can ask for the time from multiple hosts.

The revised client reads a list of hostnames from the command line and sends a daytime request to each one. It then enters a loop in which it calls recv() repeatedly to read any responses returned by the server. The loop quits when the number of responses received matches the number of requests sent, or until a preset timeout occurs. As it receives each response, the client prints the name of the remote host and the time it returned. Figure 18.3 lists the code for the revised daytime client, udp_daytime_multi.pl.

Figure 18.3. This time-of-day client contacts multiple hosts

graphics/18fig03.gif

Lines 17: Initialize script We bring in the IO::Socket module and its constants. We again declare the MAX_MSG_LEN constant and define a timeout of 10 seconds for the receipt of all the responses. As before, we set the input record separator to CRLF.

Line 8: Set up a signal handler We will use alarm() to set the timeout on received responses, so we install an ALRM signal handler, which simply dies with an appropriate message.

Line 9: Create socket We call IO::Socket::INET->new() with a Proto argument of " udp " to create a UDP socket. Because we will specify the destination address within send() and don't want IO::Socket to perform an automatic connect(), we do not provide PeerPort or PeerAddr arguments.

Line 10: Look up the daytime port We look up the port number for the UDP version of the daytime service using getservbyname().

Lines 1120: Send request to all hosts We now send a request to each host that is given on the command line. For each host we use inet_aton() to translate its name into a packed IP address, and sockaddr_in() to create a suitable destination address.

We now send a request to the time-of-day server running on the indicated host. As before, the exact content of the request is irrelevant. If send() reports that the message was successfully queued, we bump up the $host_count counter. Otherwise, we warn about the error.

Lines 2132: Wait for responses We are now going to wait for up to TIMEOUT seconds for all the responses to come in. If we get all the responses we are expecting, we leave the loop early. We call alarm() to set the timeout and enter a loop that decrements $host_count each time through. Within the body of the loop, we call recv(). If recv() returns false, then an error has occurred and we print the contents of $! and go on to the next iteration of the loop.

If recv() succeeds, it places the received message into $daytime. We now attempt to recover the hostname of the sender of the message we just received. Recall that IO::Socket::INET conveniently remembers the peer address from themost recent invocation of recv(). We fetch this address by calling peeraddr() and pass it to gethostbyaddr() to translate it into a DNS name. If gethostbyaddr() fails, we call the socket's peerhost() method to translate the packed peer address into a dotted-quad IP address string.

We remove the terminal CRLF from $daytime and print the time and the name of the host that reported it.

Line 33: Turn off the alarm On principle, we deactivate the alarm after the loop is done. This isn't strictly necessary because the program will exit immediately anyway.

Here is what I saw when I ran the client against several machines located in various parts of the world. Notice that we got a delayed " Connection refused " message from one of the machines, but we can't easily determine which one generated the error (except by a process of elimination). Finally, notice that the responses don't come back in the same order in which we submitted the requests!

% udp_daytime_multi.pl sunsite.auc.dk rtfm.mit.edu wuarchive.wustl.edu
     prep.ai.mit.edu
 sent to sunsite.auc.dk...
 sent to rtfm.mit.edu...
 sent to wuarchive.wustl.edu...
 sent to prep.ai.mit.edu...
 
 Waiting for responses...
 PENGUIN-LUST.MIT.EDU: Thu Aug 17 05:57:50 2000
 wuarchive.wustl.edu: Thu Aug 17 04:57:52 2000
 Connection refused
 sunsite.auc.dk: Thu Aug 17 11:57:54 2000
 

Aside from the time-zone differences, the three machines that responded reported the same time, plus or minus a few seconds. It is likely that they are running XNTP servers, a UDP-based protocol for synchronizing clocks with an authoritative source.

UDP Servers

UDP servers are generally much simpler in design than their TCP brethren. A typical UDP server is a simple loop that receives a message from an incoming client, processes it, and transmits a response. A server may handle requests from different clients with each iteration of the loop.

Because there's no long-term relationship between client and server, there's no need to manage connections, maintain concurrency, or retain state for an extended time. By the same token, a UDP server must be careful to process each transaction quickly or it may delay the response to waiting requests.

We will look at UDP servers in more detail in Chapter 19. In this chapter, we show a very simple example of a UDP client/server pair.

A UDP Reverse-Echo Server

For this example, we reimplement the reverse-echo server from Chapter 4 (Figure 4.2). As you recall, this server reads lines of input from the socket, reverses them, and echoes them back. Figure 18.4 lists the code.

Figure 18.4. A UDP reverse-echo server

graphics/18fig04.gif

Lines 17: Initialize module We load the IO::Socket module and initialize our constants. The MY_ECHO_PORT constant should be set to an unused port on your system. We allow our port number to be changed at runtime using a command-line argument. If this argument is present, we recover it and store it in $port.

Line 8: Install INT handler We install an INT handler so that the server exits gracefully when the interrupt key is pressed. Microsoft Windows users will want to comment this out to avoid Dr. Watson errors.

Lines 910: Create the socket We call IO:Socket::INET->new() to create a UDP socket bound to the port specified on the command line. The LocalPort argument is required to bind to the correct port, but as with TCP sockets there's no need to provide LocalAddr explicitly. IO::Socket::INET assumes INADDR_ANY, allowing the socket to receive messages on any of the host's network interfaces.

Lines 1121: Main loop We enter an infinite loop. Each time through the loop we call the socket's recv() method, copying the message into $msg_in. If for some reason we encounter an error, we just continue with the next iteration of the loop.

After accepting a message, we call the socket's peeraddr() method to recover the packed address of the sender, and attempt to translate it into a DNS hostname as before. If this fails, we retrieve the dotted-quad form of the peer's IP address. The call to peerport() returns the sender's port number. We print a status message to standard error and generate a response consisting of the client's message reversed end-to-end.

We now take advantage of another trick in the IO::Socket module. As mentioned earlier, if you call the send() method immediately after recv(), IO::Socket uses the stored peer address as its default destination. This means that we do not have to explicitly pass the destination address to send(). This reduces the idiom to a succinct:

$sock->send($msg_out) or die "send(): $!\n"; # (line 21)
 

Line 22: Close the socket Although this statement is never reached, we call the socket's close() method at the end of the script.

UDP Echo Client

We need a client to go along with this server. A suitable one is shown in Figure 18.5.

Figure 18.5. Echo client

graphics/18fig05.gif

Lines 18: Initialization We load the IO::Socket module and initialize our constants and global variables. We use the standard " echo " service port as our default. This can be overridden on the command line, for instance to talk to the reverse-echo server discussed in the previous section.

Lines 910: Create socket We create a new IO::Socket::INET object, requesting the UDP protocol and specifying a PeerAddr that combines the selected hostname and port number. Because we know in advance that the socket will be used to send messages to only one single host, we allow IO::Socket to call connect().

Lines 1116: Main loop We read a line of input from standard input, then remove the terminal newline and send() it to the server. We don't need to specify a destination address, because the default destination has been set with connect(). We then call recv() to receive a response and print it to standard output.

Line 17: Close the socket The loop exits when standard input is closed. We close the socket by calling its close() method.

I launched the echo server from the previous section on the machine brie.cshl.org and ran the client on another machine, being careful to specify port 2007 rather than the default echo port. The transcript from the client session looked like this:

% udp_echo_cli1.pl brie.cshl.org 2007
 hello there
 ereht olleh
 what's up?
 ?pu s'tahw
 goodbye
 eybdoog
 ^D
 

Meanwhile, on the server machine, these messages were printed.

% udp_echo_serv.pl
 servicing incoming requests....
 Received 11 bytes from [brie.cshl.org,1048]
 Received 10 bytes from [brie.cshl.org,1048]
 Received 7 bytes from [brie.cshl.org,1048]
 

If other clients had sent requests during the same period of time, the server would have processed them as well and printed an appropriate status message.

Increasing the Robustness of UDP Applications

Because UDP is unreliable, problems arise when you least expect them. Although the echo client of Figure 18.5 looks simple, it actually contains a hidden bug. To bring out this bug, try pointing the client at an echo server running on a remote UNIX host somewhere on the Internet. Instead of typing directly into the client, redirect its standard input from a large text file, such as /usr/dict/words:

% udp_echo_cli1.pl wuarchive.wustl.edu echo </usr/dict/words
 					

If the quality of your connection is excellent, you may see the entire contents of the file scroll by and the command-line prompt reappear after the last line is echoed. More likely, though, you will see the program get part way through the text file and then hang indefinitely. What happened?

Remember that UDP is an unreliable protocol. Any datagram sent to the remote server may fail to reach its destination, and any datagram returned from the server to the local host may vanish into the ether. If the remote server is very busy, it may not be able to keep up with the flow of incoming packets, resulting in buffer overrun errors.

Our echo client doesn't take these possibilities into account. After we send() the message, we blithely call recv(), assuming that a response will be forthcoming. If the response never arrives, we block indefinitely, making the script hang.

This is yet another example of deadlock. We won't get a message from the server until we send it one to echo back, but we can't do that because we're waiting for a message from the server!

As with TCP, we can avoid deadlock either by timing out the call to recv() or by using some form of concurrency to decouple the input from the output.

Timing Out UDP Receives

It's straightforward to time out a call to recv() using an eval{} block and an ALRM handler:

eval {
    local $SIG{ALRM} = sub { die "timeout\n" };
    alarm($timeout);
    $result = $sock->recv($msg_in,max_msg_LEN);
    alarm(0);
 };
 if ($@) {
    die $@ unless $@ eq "timeout\n";
    warn "Timed out!\n";
 }
 

We wrap recv() in an eval{} block and set a local ALRM handler that invokes die(). Just prior to making the system call, we call the alarm() function with the desired timeout value. If the function returns normally, we call alarm(0) to cancel the alarm. Otherwise, if the alarm clock goes off before the function returns, the ALRM handler runs and we die. But since this fatal error is trapped within an eval{} block, the effect is to abort the entire block and to leave the error message in the $@ variable. Our last step is to examine this variable and issue a warning if a timeout occurred or die if the variable contains an unexpected error.

Using a variant of this strategy, we can design a version of the echo client that transmits a message and waits up to a predetermined length of time for a response. If the recv() call times out, we try again by retransmitting the request. If a predetermined number of retransmissions fail, we give up.

Figure 18.6 shows a modified version of the echo client, udp_echo_cli2.pl.

Figure 18.6. udp_echo_cli2.pl implements a timeout on recv()

graphics/18fig06.gif

Lines 115: Initialize module, create socket The main changes are two new constants to control the timeouts. TIMEOUT specifies the time, in seconds, that the client will allow recv() to wait for a message. We set it to 2 seconds. MAX_RETRIES is the number of times the client will try to retransmit a message before it assumes that the remote server is not answering.

Lines 1630: Main loop We now place a do{} loop around the calls to send() and recv(). The do{} loop retransmits the outgoing message every time a timeout occurs, up to MAX_RETRIES times. Within the do{} loop, we call send() to transmit the message as before, but recv() is wrapped in an eval{} block. The only difference between this code and the generic idiom is that the local ALRM handler bumps up a variable named $retries each time it is invoked. This allows us to track the number of timeouts. After the eval{} block completes, we check whether the number of retries is greater than the maximum retry setting. If so we issue a short warning and die.

The easiest way to test the new and improved echo client is to point it at a port that isn't running the echo service, for example, 2008 on the local host:

% udp_echo_cli2.pl localhost 2008
 anyone home?
 Retrying...1
 Retrying...2
 Retrying...3
 Retrying...4
 Retrying...5
 timeout
 

Duplicates and Out-of-Sequence Datagrams

While this timeout code fixes the problem with deadlocks, it opens the door on a new one: duplicates. Instead of being lost, it is possible that the missing response was merely delayed and that it will arrive later. In this case, the program will receive an extra message that it isn't prepared to deal with.

If you are sufficiently dexterous and are using a UNIX machine, you can demonstrate this with the reverse-echo server/echo client pair from Figures 18.4 and 18.6. Launch the echo server and echo clients in separate windows. Type a few lines into the echo client to get things going. Now suspend the echo server by typing ^Z, and go back to the client window and type another line. The client will begin to generate timeout messages. Quickly go back to the server window and resume the server by typing the fg command. The client will recover from the timeout and print the server's response. Unfortunately, the client and server are now hopelessly out of synch! The responses the client displays are those from the retransmitted requests, not the current request.

Another problem that we can encounter in UDP communications is out-of-sequence datagrams, in which two datagrams arrive in a different order from that in which they were sent. The general technique for dealing with both these problems is to attach a sequence number to each outgoing message and design the client/server protocol in such a way that the server returns the same sequence number in its response. In this section, we develop a better echo client that implements this scheme. In so doing, we show how select() can be used with UDP sockets to implement timeouts and prevent deadlock.

To implement a sequence number scheme, both client and server have to agree on the format of the messages. Our scheme is a simple one. Each request from client to server consists of a sequence number followed by a " : " character, a space, and a payload of arbitrary length. Sequence numbers begin at 0 and count upward. For example, in this message, the sequence number is 42 and the payload is " the meaning of life ":

42: the meaning of life
 

The reverse-echo server generates a response that preserves this format. The server's response to the sample request given earlier would be:

42: efil fo gninaem eht
 

The modifications to the reverse-echo server of Figure 18.4 are trivial. We simply replace line 19 with a few lines of code that detect messages having the sequence number/payload format and generate an appropriately formatted response.

if ( $msg_in =~ /^(\d+): (.*)/ ) {
   $msg_out = "$1: ".reverse $2;
 } else {
   $msg_out = reverse $msg_in;
 }
 

For backward compatibility, messages that are not in the proper format are simply reversed as before. Another choice would be to have the server discard unrecognized messages.

All the interesting changes are in the client, which we will call udp_echo_cli3.pl (Figure 18.7). Our strategy is to maintain a hash named %PENDING to contain a record of every request that has been sent. The hash is indexed by the sequence number of the outgoing request and contains both a copy of the original request and a counter that keeps track of the number of times the request has been sent.

Figure 18.7. The udp_echo_cli3.pl script detects duplicate and misordered messages

graphics/18fig07.gif

A global variable $seqout is incremented by 1 every time we generate a new request, and another global, $seqin, keeps track of the sequence number of the last response received from the server so that we can detect out-of-order responses.

We must abandon the send-and-wait paradigm of the earlier UDP clients and assume that responses from the server can arrive at unpredictable times. To do this, we use select() with a timeout to multiplex between STDIN and the socket. Whenever the user types a new request (i.e., a string to be reversed), we bump up the $seqout variable and create a new request entry in the %PENDING array.

Whenever a response comes in from the server, we check its sequence number to see if it corresponds to a request that we have made. If it does, we print the response and delete the request from %PENDING. If a response comes in whose sequence number is not found in %PENDING, then it is a duplicate response, which we discard. We store the most recent sequence number of an incoming response in $seqin, and use it to detect out-of-order responses. In the case of this client, we simply warn about out-of-order responses, but don't take any more substantial action.

If the call to select() times out before any new messages arrive, we check the %PENDING array to see if there is still one or more unsatisfied requests. If so, we retransmit the requests and bump up the counter for the number of times the request has been tried.

In order to mix line-oriented reads from STDIN with multiplexing, we take advantage of the IO::Getline module that we developed in Chapter 13 (Figure 13.2). Let's walk through the code now:

Lines 19: Load modules, define constants We bring in the IO::Socket, IO::Select, and IO::Getline modules.

Lines 1012: Define the structure of the %PENDING hash The %PENDING hash is indexed by request sequence number. Its values are two-element array references containing the original request and the number of times the request has been sent. We use symbolic constants for the indexes of this array reference, such that $PENDING{$seqno}[REQUEST] is the text of the request and $PENDING{$seqno}[TRIES] is the number of times the request has been sent to the server.

Lines 1318: Global variables $seqout is the master counter that is used to assign unique sequence numbers to each outgoing request. $seqin keeps track of the sequence number of the last response we received. The server $host and $port are read from the command line as before.

Lines 1922: Create socket, IO::Select objects, and IO::Getline objects We create a UDP socket as before. If successful, we create an IO::Select set initialized to contain the socket and STDIN, as well as an IO::Getline object wrapped around STDIN.

Lines 2325: The select() loop We now enter the main loop of the program. Each time through the loop we call the select set's can_read() method with the desired timeout. This returns a list of filehandles that are ready for reading, or if the timeout expired, an empty list. We loop through each of the filehandles that are ready for reading. There are only two possibilities. One is that the user has typed something and STDIN has some data for us to read. The other is that a message has been received and we can call recv() on the socket without blocking.

Lines 2632: Handle input on STDIN If STDIN is ready to read, we fetch a line from its IO::Getline wrapper by calling the getline() method. Recall that the syntax for IO::Getline->getline() works like read(). It copies the line into a scalar variable (in this case, $_) and returns a result code indicating the success of the operation.

If getline() returns false, we know we've encountered the end of file and we exit the loop. Otherwise, we check whether we got a complete line by looking at the line length returned by getline(), and if so, remove the terminating end-of-line sequence and call send_message() with the message text and a new sequence number.

Lines 3337: Handle a message on the socket If the socket is ready to read, then we've received a response from the server. We retrieve it by calling the socket's recv() method and pass the message to our receive_message() subroutine.

Lines 3941: Handle retries If @ready is empty, then we have timed out. We call the do_retries() subroutine to retransmit any requests that are pending.

Lines 4249: The send_message() subroutine This subroutine is responsible for transmitting a request to the server given a unique sequence number and the text of the request. We construct the message using the simple format discussed earlier and send() it to the server.

We then add the request to the %PENDING hash. This subroutine is also called on to retransmit requests, so rather than setting the TRIES field to 1, we increment it and let Perl take care of creating the field if it doesn't yet exist.

Lines 5066: The receive_message() subroutine This subroutine is responsible for processing an incoming response. We begin by parsing the sequence number and the payload. If it doesn't fit the format, we print a warning and return. Having recovered the response's sequence number, we check to see whether it is known to the %PENDING hash. If not, this response is presumably a duplicate. We print a warning and return. We check to see whether the sequence number of this response is greater than the sequence number of the last one. If not, we print a warning, but don't take any other action.

If all these checks pass, then we have a valid response. We print it out, remember its sequence number, and delete the request from the %PENDING hash.

Lines 6777: The do_retries() subroutine This subroutine is responsible for retransmitting pending requests whose responses are late. We loop through the keys of the %PENDING hash and examine each one's TRIES field. If TRIES is greater than the MAX_RETRIES constant, then we print a warning that we are giving up on the request and delete it from %PENDING. Otherwise, we invoke send_message() on the request in order to retransmit it.

To test udp_echo_cli3.pl, I modified the reverse-echo server to make it behave unreliably. The modification occurs at line 20 of Figure 18.4 and consists of this:

for (1..3) {
    $sock->send($msg_out) or die "send(): $!\n" if rand() > 0.7;
 }
 

Instead of sending a single response as before, we now send a variable number of responses using Perl's rand() function to generate a random coin flip. Sometimes the server sends one response, sometimes none, and sometimes several.

When we run udp_echo_cli3.pl against this unreliable server, we see output like the following. In this transcript, the user input is bold, standard error is italic, and the output of the script is roman.

% udp_echo_cli3.pl localhost 2007
 hello there
 0: retrying...
 hello there => ereht olleh
 Discarding duplicate message seqno = 0
 Discarding duplicate message seqno = 0
 this is unreliable communications
 1: retrying...
 this is unreliable communications => snoitacinummoc elbailernu si siht
 but it works anyway
 2: retrying...
 but it works anyway => yawyna skrow ti tub
 Discarding duplicate message seqno = 2
 Discarding duplicate message seqno = 2
 						

Even though some responses were dropped and others were duplicated, the client still managed to associate the correct response with each request.

A cute thing about this client is that it will work with unmodified UDP echo servers. This is because we designed the message protocol in such a way that the protocol is correct even if the server just returns the incoming message without modification.

As written in Figure 18.7, the client is slightly inefficient because we time out can_read(), even when there's nothing in %PENDING to wait for. We can fix this problem by modifying line 23 of Figure 18.7 to read this way:

my @ready = $select->can_read ( %PENDING ? TIMEOUT : () );
 

If %PENDING is nonempty, we call can_read() with a timeout. Otherwise, we pass an empty list for the arguments, causing can_read() to block indefinitely until either the socket or STDIN are ready to read.

Chapter 19. UDP Servers

TCP provides reliable connection-oriented network service, but at the cost of some overhead in setting up and tearing down connections and maintaining the fidelity of the data stream. As we have seen, there's also programmer overhead: TCP server applications have to go to some lengths to handle multiple concurrent clients.

Sometimes 100 percent reliability isn't necessary. Perhaps the application can tolerate an occasional dropped or out-of-order packet, or perhaps it can simply retransmit a message that hasn't been acknowledged. In such cases, UDP offers a simple, lightweight solution.

An Internet Chat System

This chapter develops a useful UDP version of an Internet chat system. Like other chat systems that might be familiar to you, the software consists of a server that manages multiple discussion groups called "channels." Users log into the server using a command-line client, join whatever channels they are interested in, and begin exchanging public messages. Any public message that a user sends is echoed by the server to all members of the user's current channel. The server also supports private messages, which are sent to a single user only by using his or her login name. The system notifies users whenever someone joins or departs one of the channels they are monitoring.

A Sample Session

Figure 19.1 shows a sample session with the chat client. As always, keyboard input is in a bold font and output from the program is in normal font.

Figure 19.1. A session with the chat client

graphics/19fig01.gif

We begin by invoking the client with the name of the server to connect to. The program prompts us for a nickname, logs in, and prints a confirmation message. We then issue the /channels command to fetch the list of available channels. This client, like certain other command-line chat clients, expects all commands to begin with the " / " character. Anything else we type is assumed to be a public message to be transmitted to the current channel. The system replies with the names of five channels, a brief description, and the number of users that belong to each one (a single user may be a member of multiple channels at once, so the sum of these numbers may not reflect the total number of users on the system).

We join the Weather channel using the /join command, at which point we begin to see public messages from other users, as well as join and departure notifications. We participate briefly in the conversation and then issue the /users command to view the users who currently belong to the channel. This command lists users' nicknames, the length of time that they have been on the system, and the channels that they are subscribed to.

We send a private message to one of the users using the /private command, /join the Hobbies channel briefly, and finally log out using /quit.

In addition to the commands shown in the example (Figure 19.1), there's also a /part command that allows one to depart a channel. Otherwise, the list of subscribed channels just grows every time you join one.

Chat System Design

The chat system is message oriented. Clients send prearranged messages to the server to log in, join a channel, send a public message, and so forth. The server sends messages back to the client whenever an event of interest occurs, such as another user posting a public message to a subscribed channel.

Event Codes

In all our previous examples, we have passed information between client and server in text form. For example, in the travesty server, the server's welcome message was the text string "100." However, some Internet protocols pass command codes and other numeric data in binary form. To illustrate such systems, the chat server uses binary codes rather than human-readable ones.

In this system, all communication between client and server is via a series of binary messages. Each message consists of an integer event code packed with a message string. For example, to create a public message using the SEND_PUBLIC message constant, we call pack() with the format "na*":

$message = pack("na*",SEND_PUBLIC,"hello, anyone here?");
 

To retrieve the code and the message string, we call unpack() with the same format:

($code,$data) = unpack("na*",$message);
 

We use the " n " format to pack the event code in platform-independent "network" byte order. This ensures that clients and servers can communicate even if their hosts don't share the same byte order.

The various event codes are defined as constants in a .pm file that is shared between the client and server source trees. The code for packing and unpacking messages is encapsulated in a module named ChatObjects::Comm. A brief description of each of the messages is given in Table 19.1.

Table 19.1. Event Codes
Code Argument Description
ERROR <error message> Server reports an error
LOGIN_REQ <nickname> Client requests a login
LOGIN_ACK <nickname> Server acknowledges successful login
LOGOFF <nickname> Client signals a signoff
JOIN_REQ <title> Client requests to join channel <title>
JOIN_ACK <title> <count> Server acknowledges join of channel <title>, currently containing <count> users
PART_REQ <title> Client requests to depart channel
PART_ACK <title> Server acknowledges departure
SEND_PUBLIC <text> Client sends public message
PUBLIC_MSG <title> <user> <text> User <user> has sent message <text> on channel <title>
SEND_PRIVATE <user> <text> Client sends private message <text> to user <user>
PRIVATE_MSG <user> <text> User <user> has sent private message <text>
USER_JOINS <channel> <user> User has joined indicated channel
USER_PARTS <channel> <user> User has departed indicated channel
LIST_CHANNELS   Client requests a list of all channel titles
CHANNEL_ITEM <channel> <count> <desc> Sent in response to a LIST_CHANNELS request
    Channel <channel> has <count> users and description <desc>
LIST_USERS   Client requests a list of users in current channel
USER_ITEM <user> <timeon> <channel 1> <channel 2>...<channel n> Sent in response to a LIST_USERS request. User <user> has been online for <timeon> seconds and is subscribed to channels <channel 1> through <channel n>

User Information

The system must maintain a certain amount of state information about each active user: the channels she has subscribed to, her nickname, her login time, and the address and port her client is bound to. While this information could be maintained on either the client or the server side, it's probably better that the server keep track of this information. It reduces the server's dependency on the client's implementing the chat protocol correctly, and it allows for more server-side features to be added later. For example, since the server is responsible for subscribing users to a channel, it is easy to limit the number or type of channels that a user can join. This information is maintained by objects of class ChatObjects::User.

Channel Information

One other item of information that the server tracks is the list of channels and associated information. In addition to the title, channels maintain a human-readable description and a list of the users currently subscribed. This simplifies the task of sending a message to all members of the channel. This information is maintained by objects of class ChatObjects::Channel.

Concurrency

We assume that each transaction that the server is called upon to handlelogging in a user, sending a public message, listing channelscan be disposed of rapidly. Therefore, the server has a single-threaded design that receives and processes messages on a first-come, first-served basis. Messages come in from users in any order, so the server must keep track of each user's address and associate it with the proper ChatObjects::User object.

On the other end, the client will be communicating with only one server. However, it needs to process input from both the server and the user, so uses a simple select() loop to multiplex between the two sources of input.

The object classes used by the server are designed for subclassing. This enables us to modify the chat system to take advantage of multicasting in the next chapter.

The Chat Server

The chat server is more complicated than the chat client because it must keep track of each user that logs in and each user's changing channel membership. When a user enters or leaves a channel, the server must transmit a notification to that effect to every remaining member of the channel. Likewise, when a user sends a public message while enrolled in a channel, that message must be duplicated and sent to each member of the channel in turn.

To simplify user management, we create two utility classes, ChatObjects::User and ChatObjects::Channel. A new ChatObjects::User object is created each time a user logs in to the system and destroyed when the user logs out. The class remembers the address and port number of the client's socket as well as the user's nickname, login time, and channel subscriptions. It also provides method calls for joining and departing channels, sending messages to other users, and listing users and channels. Since most of the server consists of sending the appropriate messages to users, most of the code is found in the ChatObjects::User class.

ChatObjects::Channel is a small class that keeps track of each channel. It maintains the channel's name and description, as well as the list of subscribers. The subscriber list is used in broadcasting public messages and notifying members when a user enters or leaves the channel.

The Main Server Script

Let's walk through the main body of the server first (Figure 19.5).

Figure 19.5. chat_server.pl main script

graphics/19fig05.gif

Lines 18: Load modules The program begins by loading various ChatObjects modules, including ChatObjects::ChatCodes, ChatObjects::Comm, and ChatObjects::User. It also defines a DEBUG constant that can be set to a true value to turn on debug messages.

Lines 914: Define channels We now create five channels by invoking the ChatObjects::Channel->new() method. The method takes two arguments corresponding to the channel title and description.

Lines 1524: Create the dispatch table We define a dispatch table, named %DISPATCH, similar to the ones used in the client application. Each key in the table is a numeric event code, and each value is the name of a ChatObject::User method. With the exception of the initial login, all interaction with the remote user goes through a ChatObjects::User object, so it makes sense to dispatch to method calls rather than to anonymous subroutines, as we did in the client.

Here is a typical entry in the dispatch table:

SEND_PUBLIC() => 'send_public',
 

This is interpreted to mean that whenever a client sends us a SEND_PUBLIC message, we will call the corresponding ChatObject::User object's send_public() method.

Lines 2528: Create a new ChatObjects:: Comm object We get the port from the command line and use it to initialize a new ChatObjects::Comm object with the arguments LocalPort=>$port. Internally this creates a UDP protocol IO::Socket object bound to the desired port. Unlike in the client code, in the server we do not specify a peer host or port to connect with, because this would disable our ability to receive messages from multiple hosts.

Lines 2932: Process incoming messages, handle login requests The main server loop calls the ChatObject::Server object's recv_event() repeatedly. This method calls recv() on the underlying socket, parses the message, and returns the event code, the event message, and the packed address of the client that sent the message.

Login requests receive special treatment because there isn't yet a ChatObjects::User object associated with the client's address. If the event code is LOGIN_REQ, then we pass the address, the event text, and our ChatObjects::Comm object to a do_login() subroutine. It will create a new ChatObjects::User object and send the client a LOGIN_ACK.

Lines 3335: Look up the user Any other event code must be from a user who has logged in earlier. We call the class method ChatObjects::User->lookup_byaddr() to find a ChatObjects::User object that is associated with the client's address. If there isn't one, it means that the client hasn't logged in, and we issue an error message by sending an event of type ERROR.

Lines 3639: Handle event If we were successful in identifying the user corresponding to the client address, we look up the event code in the dispatch table and treat it as a method call on the user object. The event data, if any, is passed to the method to deal with as appropriate. If the event code is unrecognized, we complain by issuing an ERROR event. In either case, we're finished processing the transaction, so we loop back and wait for another incoming request.

Lines 4045: Handle logins The do_login() subroutine is called to handle new user registration. It receives the peer's packed address, the ChatObjects::Comm object, and the LOGIN_REQ event data, which contains the nickname that the user desires to register under.

It is certainly possible for two users to request the same nickname. We check for this eventuality by calling the ChatObjects::User class method lookup_byname(). If there is already a user registered under this name, then we issue an error. Otherwise, we invoke ChatObjects::User->new() to create a new user object.

The ChatObjects::User Class

Most of the server application logic is contained in the ChatObjects::User module (Figure 19.6). This object mediates all events transmitted to a particular user and keeps track of the set of channels in which a user is enrolled.

Figure 19.6. The ChatObjects::User Module

graphics/19fig06.gif

The set of enrolled channels is implemented as an array. Although the user may belong to multiple channels, one of those channels is special because it receives all public messages that the user sends out. In this implementation, the current channel is the first element in the array; it is always the channel that the user subscribed to most recently.

Lines 14: Bring in required modules The module turns on strict type checking and brings in the ChatObjects::ChatCodes and Socket modules.

Lines 56: Overload the quote operator One of Perl's nicer features is the ability to overload certain operators so that a method call is invoked automatically. In the case of the ChatObjects::User class, it would be nice if the object were replaced with the user's nickname whenever the object is used in a string context. This would allow the string " Your name is $user " to interpolate automatically to " Your name is rufus " rather than to " Your name is ChatObjects::User=HASH(0x82b81b0). "

We use the overload pragma to implement this feature, telling Perl to interpolate the object into double-quoted strings by calling its nickname() method and to fall back to the default behavior for all other operators.

Lines 79: Set up package globals The module needs to look up registered users in two ways: by their nicknames and by the addresses of their clients. Two in-memory globals keep track of users. The %NICKNAMES hash indexes the user objects by the users' nicknames. %ADDRESSES, in contrast, indexes the objects by the packed addresses of their clients. Initially these hashes are empty.

Lines 1022: The new() method The new() method creates new ChatObjects::User objects. It is passed three arguments: the packed address of the user's client, the user's nickname, and a ChatObjects::Comm object to use in sending messages to the user. We store these attributes into a blessed hash, along with a record of the user's login time and an empty anonymous array. This array will eventually contain the list of channels that the user belongs to.

Having created the object, we invoke the server object's send_event() method to return a LOGIN_ACK message to the user, being sure to use the three-argument form of send_event() so that the message goes to the correct client. We then stash the new object into the %NICKNAMES and %ADDRESSES hashes and return the object to the caller.

There turns out to be a slight trick required to make the %ADDRESSES hash work properly. Occasionally Perl's recv() call returns a packed socket address that contains extraneous junk in the unused fields of the underlying C data structure. This junk is ignored by the send() call and is discarded when sockaddr_in() is used to unpack the address into its port and IP address components.

The problem arises when comparing two addresses returned by recv() for equality, because differences in the junk data may cause the addresses to appear to be different, when in fact they share the same port numbers and IP addresses. To avoid this issue, we call a utility subroutine named key(), which turns the packed address into a reliable key containing the port number and IP address.

Lines 2332: Look up objects by name and address The lookup_byname() and lookup_byaddr() methods are class methods that are called to retrieve ChatObjects::User objects based on the nickname of the user and her client's address, respectively. These methods work by indexing into %NICKNAMES and %ADDRESSES. For the reasons already explained, we must pass the packed address to key() in order to turn it into a reliable value that can be used for indexing. The users() method returns a list of all currently logged-in users.

Lines 3338: Various accessors The next block of code provides access to user data. The address(), nickname(), timeon(), and channels() methods return the user's address, nickname, login time, and channel set. current_channel() returns the channel that the user subscribed to most recently.

Lines 3943: Send an event to the user The ChatObjects::User send() method is a convenience method that accepts an event code and the event data and passes that to the ChatObject::Server object's send_event() method. The third argument to send_event() is the user's stored address to be used as the destination for the datagram that carries the event.

Lines 4450: Handle user logout When the user logs out, the logout() method is invoked. This method removes the user from all subscribed channels and then deletes the object from the %NICKNAMES and %ADDRESSES hashes. These actions remove all memory references to the object and cause Perl to destroy the object and reclaim its space.

Lines 5165: The join() method The join() method is invoked when the user has requested to join a channel. It is passed the title of the channel.

The join() method begins by looking up the selected channel object using the ChatObjects::Channel lookup() method. If no channel with the indicated name is identified, we issue an error event by calling our send() method. Otherwise, we call our channels() method to retrieve the current list of channels that the user is enrolled in. If we are not already enrolled in the channel, we call the channel object's add() method to notify other users that we are joining the channel. If we already belong to the channel, we delete it from its current position in the channels array so that it will be moved to the top of the list in the next part of the code. We make the channel object current by making it the first element of the channels array, and send the client a JOIN_ACK event.

Lines 6680: The part() method The part() method is called when a user is departing a channel; it is similar to join() in structure and calling conventions.

If the user indeed belongs to the selected channel, we call the corresponding channel object's remove() method to notify other users that the user is leaving. We then remove the channel from the channels array and send the user a PART_ACK event. The removed channel may have been the current channel, in which case we issue a JOIN_ACK for the new current channel, if any.

Lines 8189: Send a public message The send_public() method handles the PUBLIC_MSG event. It takes a line of text, looks up the current channel, and calls the channel's message() method. If there is no current channel, indicating that the user is not enrolled in any channel, then we return an error message.

Lines 90101: Send a private message The send_private() method handles a request to send a private message to a user. We receive the data from a PRIVATE_MSG event and parse it into the recipient's nickname and the message text. We then call our lookup_byname() method to turn the nickname into a user object. If no one by that name is registered, we issue an error message. Otherwise, we call the user object's send() method to transmit a PRIVATE_MSG event directly to the user.

This method takes advantage of the fact that user objects call nickname() automatically when interpolated into strings. This is the result of overloading the double-quote operator at the beginning of the module.

Lines 102111: List users enrolled in the current channel The list_users() method generates and transmits a series of USER_ITEM events to the client. Each event contains information about users enrolled in the current channel (including the present user).

We begin by recovering the current channel. If none is defined (because the user is enrolled in no channels at all), we send an ERROR event. Otherwise, we retrieve all the users on the current channel by calling its users() method, and transmit a USER_ITEM event containing the user nickname, the length of time the user has been registered with the system (measured in seconds), and a space-delimited list of the channels the user is enrolled in.

Like the user class, ChatObjects::Channel overloads the double-quoted operator so that its title() method is called when the object is interpolated into double-quoted strings. This allows us to use the object reference directly in the data passed to send().

Lines 112115: Listchannels list_channels() returns a list of the available channels by sending the user a series of CHANNEL_ITEM events. It calls the ChatObjects::Channel class's channels() method to retrieve the list of all channels, and incorporates each channel into a CHANNEL_ITEM event. The event contains the information returned by the channel objects' info() method. In the current implementation, this consists of the channel title, the number of enrolled users, and the human-readable description of the channel.

Line 116118: Turn a packed client address into a hash key As previously explained, the system recv() call can return random junk in the unused parts of the socket address structure, complicating the comparison of client addresses. The key() method normalizes the address into a string suitable for use as a hash key by unpacking the address with sockaddr_in() and then rejoining the host address and port with a " : " character. Two packets sent from the same host and socket will have identical keys.

Because we have a method named join(), we must qualify the built-in function of the same name as CORE::join() in order to avoid the ambiguity.

The ChatObjects::Channel Class

Last, we look at the ChatObjects::Channel class (Figure 19.7). The most important function of this class is to broadcast messages to all current members of the channel whenever a member joins, leaves, or sends a public message. The class does this by iterating across each currently enrolled user, invoking their send() methods to transmit the appropriate event.

Figure 19.7. The ChatObjects::Channel class

graphics/19fig07.gif

Lines 13: Bring in modules The module begins by loading the ChatObjects::User and ChatObjects::ChatCodes modules.

Lines 47: Overload double-quoted string operator As in ChatObjects::User, we want to be able to interpolate channel objects directly into strings. We overload the double-quoted string operator so that it invokes the object's title() method, and tell Perl to fall back to the default behavior for other operators.

At this point we also define a package global named %CHANNELS. It will hold the definitive list of channel objects indexed by title for later lookup operations.

Lines 816: Object constructor The new() class method is called to create a new instance of the ChannelObjects::Channel class. We take the title and description for the new channel and incorporate them into a blessed hash, along with an empty anonymous hash that will eventually contain the list of users enrolled in the channel. We stash the new object in the %CHANNELS hash and return it.

Lines 1722: Look up a channel by title The lookup() method returns the ChatObjects::Channel object that has the indicated title. We retrieve the title from the subroutine argument array and use it to index into the %CHANNELS array. The channels() method fetches all the channel titles by returning the keys of the %CHANNELS hash.

Lines 2325: Various accessors The title() and description() methods return the channel's title and description, respectively. The users() method returns a list of all users enrolled in the channel. The keys of the users hash are users' nicknames, and its values are the corresponding ChatObjects::User objects.

Lines 2630: Return information for the CHANNEL_ITEM event The info() method provides data to be incorporated into the CHANNEL_ITEM event. In the current version of ChatObjects::Channel, info() returns a space-delimited string containing the channel title, the number of users currently enrolled, and the description of the channel. In the next chapter we will override info() to return a multicast address for the channel as well.

Lines 3135: Send an event to all enrolled users The send_to_all() method is the crux of the whole application. Given an event code and the data associated with it, this method sends the event to all enrolled users. We do this by calling users() to get the up-to-date list of ChatObject::User objects and sending the event code and data to each one via its send() method. This results in one datagram being sent for each enrolled user, with no issues of blocking or concurrency control.

Lines 3642: Enroll a user The add() method is called when a user wishes to join a channel. We first check that the user is not already a member, in which case we do nothing. Otherwise, we use the send_to_all() method to send a USER_JOINS event to each member and add the new user to the users hash.

Lines 4349: Remove a user The remove() method is called to remove a user from the channel. We check that the user is indeed a member of the channel, delete the user from the users hash, and then send a USER_PARTS message to all the remaining enrollees.

Lines 5055: Send a public message The message() method is called when a user sends a public message. We are called with the name of the user who is sending the message and retransmit the message to each of the members of the group (including the sender) with the send_to_all() method.

Notice that the server makes no attempt to verify that each user receives the events it transmits. This is typical of a UDP server, and appropriate for an application like this one, which doesn't require 100 percent precision.

Detecting Dead Clients

There is, however, a significant problem with the chat server as it is currently written. A client might crash for some reason before sending a LOGOFF event to the server, or a LOGOFF event might be sent but get lost on the network. In this case, the server will think that the user is logged in and continue to send messages to the client. Over long periods of time, the server may fill up with such phantom users. There are a number of solutions to this problem:

  • The server times out inactive users Each time the server receives an event from a user, such as joining or departing a channel, it records the time the event occurred in the corresponding ChatObjects::User object. At periodic intervals, the server checks all users for those who have been silent for a long time and deletes them. This has the disadvantage of logging out "lurkers" who are monitoring chat channels but not participating in them.

  • The server pings clients The server could send a PING event to each client at regular intervals. The clients are expected to respond to the event by returning a PING_ACK. If a client fails to acknowledge some number of consecutive pings, the user is automatically logged out.

  • The clients ping the server Instead of the server pinging clients and expecting an acknowledgment, clients could send the server a STILL_HERE event at regular intervals. Periodically, the server checks that each user is still sending STILL_HERE events and logs out any that have fallen silent.

Adding STILL_HERE Events to the Chat System

The third solution we listed represents a good compromise between simplicity and effectiveness. It requires small changes to the following files:

  • ChatObjects/ChatCodes.pm We add a STILL_HERE event code for the client to use to transmit periodic confirmations that it is still active.

  • ChatObjects/TimedUser.pm We define a new ChatObjects::TimedUser class, which inherits from ChatObjects::User. This class adds the ability to record the time of a STILL_HERE event and to return the number of seconds since the last such event.

  • chat_client.pl The top-level client application must be modified to generate STILL_HERE events at roughly regular intervals.

  • chat_server.pl The top-level server application must handle STILL_HERE events and perform periodic checks for defunct clients.

Modifications to ChatObjects::ChatCodes

The modifications to ChatObjects::ChatCodes are minimal. We simply define a new STILL_HERE constant and add it to the @EXPORTS list:

@EXPORT = qw(
             ERROR
             LOGIN_REQ     LOGIN_ACK
             ...
             STILL_HERE
             );
  ...use constant USER_ITEM  => 190;
  use constant STILL_HERE    => 200;
  1;
 

The ChatObjects::TimedUser Subclass

We next define ChatObjects::TimedUser, a simple subclass of ChatObjects::User (Figure 19.8). This class overrides the original new() method to add a stillhere instance variable. A new still_here() method updates the variable with the current time, and inactivity_interval() returns the number of seconds since still_here() was last called.

Figure 19.8. The ChatObjects::TimedUser module

graphics/19fig08.gif

ChatObjects::TimedUser will be used by the modified server instead of ChatObjects::User.

The Modified chat_client.pl Program

Next we modify chat_client.pl in order to issue periodic STILL_HERE events. Figure 19.9 shows the first half of the modified script (the rest is identical to the original given in Figure 19.2). The relevant changes are as follows:

Figure 19.9. chat_client.pl with periodic STILL_HERE events

graphics/19fig09.gif

Line 8: Define an ALIVE_INTERVAL constant We define a constant called ALIVE_INTERVAL, which contains the interval at which we issue STILL_HERE events. This interval must be shorter than the period the server uses to time out inactive clients. We choose 30 seconds for ALIVE_INTERVAL and 120 seconds for the server timeout period, meaning that the client must miss four consecutive STILL_HERE events over a period of 2 minutes before the server will assume that it's defunct.

Line 38: Create a timer for STILL_HERE events The global variable $last_alive contains the time that we last sent a STILL_HERE event. This is used to determine when we should issue the next one.

Line 47: Add a select() timeout We want to send the STILL_HERE event at regular intervals even when neither STDIN nor the server have data to read. To achieve this, we add a timeout to our call to the IO::Select object's can_read() method so that if no data is received within that period of time, we will still have the opportunity to send the event in a timely fashion.

Lines 5558: Send STILL_HERE event Each time through the main loop, we check whether it is time to send a new STILL_HERE event. If so, we send the event and record the current time in $last_alive.

The Modified chat_server.pl Program

Figure 19.10 shows the chat_server.pl script modified to support auto logout of defunct clients. The modifications are as follows:

Figure 19.10. chat_server.pl with periodic checks for defunct clients

graphics/19fig10.gif

Line 6: Use ChatObjects::TimedUser We bring in the ChatObjects::TimedUser module to have access to its still_here() and inactivity_interval() methods.

Lines 910: Define auto-logout parameters We define an AUTO_LOGOUT constant of 120 seconds. If a client fails to send a STILL_HERE message within that interval, it will be logged out automatically. We also define an interval of 30 seconds for checking all currently logged-in users of the system. This imposes a smaller burden on the system than would doing the check every time a message comes in.

Line 26: Dispatch on the STILL_HERE event We add an entry to the %DISPATCH dispatch table that invokes the current ChatObject::TimedUser object's still_here() method when the STILL_HERE event is received.

Line 32: Keep track of the check time As in the client, we need to keep track of the next time to check for inactive clients. We do this using a global variable named $next_check, which is set to the current time plus CHECK_INTERVAL.

Lines 4345: Call the auto_logoff() method at regular intervals We then add a continue{} block to the bottom of the main loop. The block checks whether it is time to check for defunct users. If so, we call a new subroutine named auto_logoff() and update $next_check.

Lines 4956: Check for inactive users and log them off The auto_logoff() method loops through each currently registered user returned by the ChatObjects::TimedUser->users() method (which is inherited from its parent). We call each user object's inactivity_interval() method to retrieve the number of seconds since the client has sent a STILL_HERE event. If the interval exceeds AUTO_LOGOUT, we call the object's logout() method to unregister the user and free up memory.

Unlike the client, we do not time out the call to $server->recv_event(). If the server is totally inactive, then defunct clients are not recognized and pruned until an event is received and the auto_logoff() function gets a chance to run. On an active server, this issue is not noticeable; but if it bothers you, you can wrap the server object's recv_event() in a call to select().

Chapter 20. Broadcasting

In this chapter we look at one of the advanced features of the UDP protocolits ability to address messages to more than one recipient via broadcasting. This chapter introduces this technology and develops a tool that makes it easier to work with from Perl. We end by enhancing the Internet chat client from Chapter 19 to allow it to locate a server at runtime using broadcasts.

Unicasting versus Broadcasting

Consider an application in which information must be sent to many clients simultaneously. An Internet teleconferencing system is one example. Another is a server that sends out periodic time synchronization signals. You could implement such a system using conventional network protocols in a couple of ways:

  1. Using TCP Accept incoming connections from clients that wish to subscribe to the service, and create a connected socket for each one. Call syswrite() on each socket every time you need to send information.

  2. Using UDP Accept incoming messages from clients and add each client's IP address and port number to a list of subscribers. Each time we want to send information, we iterate over each client's destination address and call send() on the socket, just like we did in the chat server in Chapter 19 (Figure 19.5).

Both these solutions are known as "unicasting" because each transmitted message is addressed to a single destination. To send identical messages to more than one destination, we have to call syswrite() or send() multiple times. Although unicast approaches are effective in many cases, they have a number of disadvantages:

  1. Unicast is inefficient for large networks. In unicast applications, it may be necessary to transmit multiple copies of the same information across the local area network and its routers. In a video-streaming application, for example, the same frame of video may have to be retransmitted thousands of times.

  2. The destination must be known in advance. By definition, to send a unicast message the sender must know the address of the recipient. However, there are a handful of cases in which it is impossible to know the recipient's address in advance. For example, in the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), a newly booted computer must contact a server to obtain its name and IP address. However, in a classic chicken-and-egg problem, the client doesn't know the server's IP address in advance, and the server can't send a unicast message back to it unless it has an IP address.

  3. Unicast doesn't allow anonymity. A corollary of (2) is that a host receiving unicast messages can't be anonymous. The peer needs its socket and IP address in order to get messages to it. However, there are many applications, including the video-streaming application that we have been discussing, in which it is neither necessary nor desirable for the server to know which clients are receiving the video stream.

Broadcasting and multicasting (the next chapter's topic) break out of the unicast paradigm by allowing a single message transmitted by a host to be delivered to multiple addresses. The server does not need to maintain multiple sockets or to call send() or syswrite() several times. Each message is placed on the local area network only once, and distributed to the other machines on the LAN in a way designed to minimize the burden on the network.

Furthermore, broadcasting and multicasting allow "resource discovery," a process that allows one host to contact another without knowing its address in advance. This same feature enables anonymous listeners to receive messages without making their presence known to the sender.

Broadcasting Explained

Broadcasting is an old technology that dates back to the earliest versions of TCP/IP. It is a nonselective form of the UDP protocol in which messages placed on the local subnet are received and processed by each host on the network. Because broadcasting is gregarious, it is strictly limited to the local subnet. Unless deliberately configured otherwise, routers refuse to forward broadcast packets across subnet boundaries.

Broadcasting is implemented using a special IP address known as the "broadcast address." As explained in Chapter 3, the broadcast address is an IP address whose host part is replaced by all ones. For example, for the class C network 192.168.3.124, the host part of the address is the last byte, making its broadcast address 192.168.3.255. Strictly speaking, this is known as the "subnet directed broadcast address," because the address is specific to the subnetwork. There are several other types of broadcast addresses, the only one of which still regularly being used is the "all-ones" broadcast address, 255.255.255.255. We will discuss this address later.

To broadcast a message, an application sends out a UDP datagram directed toward a network port and the broadcast address for the network. The message will be distributed to all hosts on the local network and picked up by any broadcast-capable network cards (Figure 20.1). The message is then passed up to the operating system, which checks whether some process has bound to the port that the message is addressed to. If there is such a socket, the message is handed off to the program that owns it. Otherwise, the message is discarded.

Figure 20.1. Broadcast packets are received by all hosts on the local Subnet and either passed to a listening application or discarded

graphics/20fig01.gif

Broadcasting is indiscriminate. All broadcast-capable interface cards attached to the network receive broadcast packets and pass them up to the operating system for processing. This is in contrast to unicast packets, which are ordinarily filtered by the card and never reach the operating system. Thus, excessive use of broadcasting can have a performance impact on all locally connected hosts because it forces the operating system to examine and dispose of each irrelevant packet.

Broadcast Applications

Despite its limitations, broadcasting is extremely useful. Network broadcasts are used in the following categories of application:

  • Resource Discovery Broadcasts are frequently used when you know that there is a server out there somewhere but you don't know its IP address in advance. For example, the DHCP uses broadcasts to locate a DHCP server and to retrieve network configuration information for a client that is booting. Similarly, the Network Information System (NIS) clients use broadcasts to locate an appropriate NIS server on the local network.

  • Route Information Routers must exchange information in order to maintain their internal routing tables in a consistent state. Some routing protocols use periodic broadcasts to advertise routes and to advise other routers of changes in the network topology.

  • Time Information The Network Time Protocol (NTP) can be configured so that a central time server periodically broadcasts the time across the LAN. This allows interested hosts to synchronize their internal clocks to the millisecond.

Broadcasting is a core part of the IPv4 protocol and is available on any operating system that supports TCP/IP networking.

Sending and Receiving Broadcasts

Broadcasting a message is simply a matter of sending a UDP message to the broadcast address for your subnet. A simple way to see broadcasts in action is to use the ping program to send an ICMP ping request to the broadcast address. The following example illustrates what happened when I pinged the broadcast address for my office's 143.48.31.0/24 network:

% ping 143.48.31.255
 PING 143.48.31.255 (143.48.31.255): 56 data bytes
 64 bytes from 127.0.0.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=4.9 ms
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.46: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=5.4 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.52: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=5.9 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.47: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=6.4 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.48: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=6.9 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.30: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=7.4 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.40: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=7.9 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.33: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=8.4 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.39: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=9.0 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.31: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=9.5 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.35: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=10.0 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.36: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=10.5 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.32: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=11.0 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.37: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=11.6 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.43: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=12.1 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.57: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=12.6 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.55: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=13.1 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.58: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=13.6 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.254: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=14.1 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.45: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=14.6 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.34: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=15.1 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.38: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=15.6 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.59: icmp_seq=0 ttl=60 time=19.1 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.60: icmp_seq=0 ttl=128 time=16.6 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.251: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=17.1 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.252: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=17.6 ms (DUP!)
 
 --- 143.48.31.255 ping statistics ---
 1 packets transmitted, 1 packets received, +25 duplicates, 0% packet
     loss round-trip min/avg/max = 4.9/11.2/17.6 ms
 

A total of 26 hosts responded to the single ping packet, including the machine I was pinging from. The machines that replied to the ping include Windows 98 laptops, a laser printer, some Linux workstations, and servers from Sun and Compaq. Every machine on the subnet received the ping packet, and each responded as if it had been pinged individually. Although one of the machines that responded was a router (143.48.31.254), it did not forward the broadcast. We did not see replies from machines outside the subnet.

Interestingly, the host I ran the ping on did not respond via its network interface of 143.48.31.42, but on its loopback interface, 127.0.0.1. This illustrates the fact that the operating system is free to choose the most efficient route to a destination and is not limited to responding to messages on the same interface that it received them on.

Sending Broadcasts

There are four simple steps to sending broadcast packets:

  1. Create a UDP socket. Create a UDP socket in the normal way, either by using Perl's built-in socket() function or with the IO::Socket module.

  2. Set the socket's SO_BROADCAST option. The designers of the socket API wanted to add some protection against programs inadvertently transmitting to the broadcast address, so they required that the SO_BROADCAST socket option be set to true before a socket can be used for broadcasting. Use either the built-in setsockopt() call or the IO::Socket unified sockopt() method.

  3. Discover the broadcast address for your subnet (optional). The broadcast address is different from location to location. You could just hard code the appropriate address for your subnet (or ask the user to enter it at runtime). For portability, however, you might want to discover the appropriate broadcast address programatically. We discuss how to do this later.

  4. Call send() to send data to the broadcast address. Use sockaddr_in() to create a packed destination address with the broadcast address and the port of your choosing. Pass the packed address to send() to broadcast the message throughout the subnet.

Figure 20.2 shows a simple echo client based on the multiplexing client from Chapter 18. It reads user input from STDIN and broadcasts the data to a hard-coded broadcast address. As responses come in, it prints the IP address and port number of each respondent and the length of the data received back.

Figure 20.2. An echo client that sends to the broadcast address

graphics/20fig02.gif

Lines 13: Bring in modules Load definitions from IO::Socket and IO::Select.

Lines 45: Choose an IP address and port We get the address and port from the command line. If not given, we default to a hard-coded broadcast address and the UDP echo service port. We will see in the next section how to discover the appropriate broadcast address automatically.

Lines 68: Create a UDP socket and enable broadcasting We call IO::Socket::INET-new() to create a new UDP protocol socket. No other arguments are necessary. We then notify the operating system that we intend to broadcast over this socket by calling its sockopt() method with SO_BROADCAST set to true.

The last line of this section creates a packed destination address from the port number and the broadcast address.

Lines 916: Select loop The body of the code is a select loop over the socket and STDIN. Each time through the loop, we call do_stdin() if there's data to be read from the user, and do_socket() if there's a message ready to receive on the socket.

Lines 1721: Broadcast user data via the socket The do_stdin() function reads some data from STDIN, exiting the script on end of file or other error. We then send the data to the packed broadcast address created in line 8.

Lines 2228: Read responses from socket If select() indicates that the socket has messages to read, we call recv(), saving the peer's packed address and the message itself in local variables. We unpack the peer's address, translate the host portion in it into a dotted-quad form, and print a message to standard output.

Here is what I got when I ran this program on the same subnet that we pinged in the previous section:

% broadcast_echo_cli.pl 143.48.31.255
 hi there
 received 9 bytes from 143.48.31.42:7
 received 9 bytes from 143.48.31.36:7
 received 9 bytes from 143.48.31.34:7
 received 9 bytes from 143.48.31.32:7
 received 9 bytes from 143.48.31.40:7
 received 9 bytes from 143.48.31.60:7
 received 9 bytes from 143.48.31.33:7
 received 9 bytes from 143.48.31.31:7
 received 9 bytes from 143.48.31.39:7
 received 9 bytes from 143.48.31.35:7
 received 9 bytes from 143.48.31.38:7
 received 9 bytes from 143.48.31.37:7
 this works
 received 11 bytes from 143.48.31.42:7
 received 11 bytes from 143.48.31.34:7
 received 11 bytes from 143.48.31.32:7
 received 11 bytes from 143.48.31.36:7
 received 11 bytes from 143.48.31.35:7
 received 11 bytes from 143.48.31.33:7
 received 11 bytes from 143.48.31.31:7
 received 11 bytes from 143.48.31.38:7
 received 11 bytes from 143.48.31.37:7
 received 11 bytes from 143.48.31.39:7
 received 11 bytes from 143.48.31.40:7
 received 11 bytes from 143.48.31.60:7
 

If you run this example program, replace the address on the command line with the broadcast address suitable for your network. Each time the client broadcasts a message, it receives a dozen responses, each corresponding to an echo server running on a machine in the local subnet. As it happens, the machine that I ran the client program on (143.48.31.42) also runs an echo server, so it is also one of the machines to respond. Broadcast packets always loop back in this way.

The echo service is commonly active on UNIX systems, and in fact all the responses seen here correspond to various UNIX and Linux hosts on my office network. The Windows machines and the laser printer that responded to the ping test do not run the echo server, so they didn't respond.

Receiving Broadcasts

In contrast to sending broadcast messages, you do not need to do anything special to receive them. Any of the UDP servers used as examples in this book, including the earliest ones from Chapter 18, respond to messages directed to the broadcast address. In fact, without resorting to very-low-level tricks, it is impossible to distinguish between UDP messages directed to your program via the broadcast address and those directed to its unicast address.

Enhancing the Chat Client to Support Resource Discovery

We now have all the ingredients on hand to add a useful feature to the UDP chat client developed in Chapter 19. If the client is launched without specifying a target server, it broadcasts requests to the chat port on whatever networks it finds itself attached to. It waits for responses from any chat servers that might be listening, and if a response is forthcoming from a host within a set time, the client connects to it and proceeds as before. In the case of multiple responses, the client binds to whichever server answers first. This is a simple form of resource discovery.

You'll find the code listing for the revised chat client in Figure 20.4. It is derived from the timed chat client of Chapter 19 (Figures 19.8, 19.9, and 19.10). Parts of the code that haven't changed are omitted from the listing.

Figure 20.4. Chat client with broadcasts

graphics/20fig04.gif

Line 8: Load the IO::Interface module We will use IO::Interface to derive the client's subnet-directed broadcast address(es), so we load the module, importing the interface flag constants at the same time.

Line 37: No default server address In previous incarnations of this client, we defaulted to localhost if the chat host was not specified on the command line. In this version, we assume no default, using an empty string for the server name if none was specified on the command line.

Lines 4041: Call find_server() to search for a server If no server address was specified on the command line, we call a new internal subroutine find_server() to locate one. If find_server() returns undef, we die.

Lines 6485: Find a server via broadcasts All the interesting work is in the find_server() subroutine. It begins by creating a new UDP socket. This socket happens to be distinct from the one that will ultimately be used to communicate with the server, but there's no reason they can't be the same. After creating the socket, we set its SO_BROADCAST option to a true value so that we can broadcast over it.

We now look for network interfaces to broadcast on. We get the list of interfaces by calling the socket's if_list() method and loop over them, looking for those that have the IFF_BROADCAST option set in their interface flags. For each broadcast-capable interface, we fetch its broadcast IP address, create a packed target address using the specified chat server port number, and send a message to it.

It doesn't matter what message we send to the server, because we care only whether a server responds at all. In this case, we send a message containing binary 0 in network order. Since this corresponds to none of the chat messages defined in the ChatCodes package, we expect the server to respond with a message code of ERROR. A more formal way to do this would be to define explicit messages that client and server could exchange for this purpose, but that would have required changes at the server end as well.

The client has broadcast the request to all its attached broadcast-capable interfaces, and now it must wait for responses. We use IO::Select to wait for up to 3 seconds for incoming messages. If no response is received before the timeout, we return undef. Otherwise, we read the first message, unpack it, and see if it contains the expected ERROR code from the chat server (if not, it may indicate that some other type of server is listening on the port). We now return the address of the sender by calling sockaddr_in() to unpack the peer name returned from recv(), and inet_ntoa() to turn the address into human-readable dotted-quad form.

If two or more chat servers received the broadcast, the client binds to the first one. The responses sent by other servers are discarded along with the socket when the subroutine goes out of scope.

When we run the modified chat client on a host that is attached to two networks, we see the client send broadcast packets to both networks. After a short interval, the client receives a response from a server on one of the networks and selects it. The remainder of the chat session proceeds as usual.

% broadcast_chat_client.pl
 Broadcasting for a server on 192.168.3.255
 Broadcasting for a server on 192.168.8.255
 Found a server at 192.168.3.2
 Your nickname: lincoln
 trying to log in (1)...
         Log in successful.  Welcome lincoln.
 

Chapter 21. Multicasting

In the previous chapter, we discussed using broadcasting to transmit a UDP message to all hosts on the local area network. The examples in that chapter revealed two of broadcasting's greatest limitations: the fact that it cannot be routed beyond the local subnet and its inability to be targeted to selected hosts. Broadcasting is strictly an all-or-nothing affair and works only across the local subnetwork.

This chapter discusses multicasting, a newer technology designed specifically for streaming video, audio, and conferencing applications. Unlike broadcasting, multicast messages are routable; that is, they can be transmitted across subnet boundaries or even across the Internet. Furthermore, multicasting gives you great flexibility in selecting which hosts will receive particular messages. A single multicast message created by a host will be cleverly replicated by routers as needed, and delivered to a single recipient, or a dozen, or thousands.

This chapter describes multicasting, how it works, and how to use it in your applications. As a practical example, we use multicasting to reimplement the chat server from Chapter 19.

Multicast Basics

Multicasting relies on a series of reserved IP addresses in the upper end of the IP address space between addresses 224.0.0.0 and 239.255.255.255. When a packet is sent to one of these addresses, it is not routed in the normal way to a single machine, but instead is distributed through the network to all machines that have registered their interest in receiving transmissions on that address. These IP addresses are known in the multicasting world as "groups" because each address refers to a group of machines.

In effect, multicast groups act much like mailing lists. A process joins one or more groups, and the multicasting system makes sure that copies of the messages directed to the group are routed to each member of the group. Later, the process can drop its membership, and the incoming messages will cease.

Like all other TCP/IP applications, multicasting uses the combination of port number and address to find the correct program to deliver a packet to. Before a socket can receive a multicast message, it must bind to a port just as a socket in a conventional unicast server application must do. This means that the same multicast group can be used for different applications (or different components of the same application) so long as everyone agrees in advance on which ports to use. For example, multicast address 226.0.1.8 can be used to receive a video stream on port 1908 and simultaneously to run an interactive whiteboard application on port 2455.

There are more than 26 million multicast addresses in the reserved range and 65,536 port numbers, which gives the Internet about 17 trillion channels to use in multicasting. However, the number of multicast groups that a single socket can join simultaneously is usually limited by the operating systems to about 20.

A variety of applications that require one-to-many connectivity use multicasting. Examples of multicast applications for which source code is available include VIC, a videoconferencing system from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; RAT, an audio streaming system from University College London; and WB, a networked whiteboard system also from Lawrence Berkeley. In addition, the network time protocol daemon, xntpd, can be configured to multicast the current time throughout the LAN. Used in conjunction with LAN-wide multicast routing, this allows one to synchronize all the machines in an organization to a single network time signal. You can find these and a large number of other Open Source multicast-related tools at http://www-mice.cs.ucl.ac.uk/multimedia/software/.

Like broadcasting, current implementation of TCP/IP multicasting is compatible with only the UDP protocol. A number of active research projects are addressing the need for a reliable connection-oriented multicasting facility. Multicasting is discussed in RFCs 1112, 2236, 1458, and others listed among the references of Appendix D.

Reserved Multicast Addresses

Multicast space isn't quite the untramelled wilderness that the last section might imply. Some address ranges are reserved for special purposes or for well-known applications. These addresses are not available for general use (Table 21.1). If you are designing a new multicast application rather than writing a client or server for an existing one, you should avoid these addresses in order to prevent potential conflicts.

The 255 addresses in the range 224.0.0.0 through 224.0.0.255 are reserved for local administrative tasks, specifically the exchange of router messages. Messages sent to these addresses are never routed beyond the local area network.

Table 21.1. Reserved Multicast Ranges
Address Ranges Purpose or Application
224.0.0.0224.0.0.255 Local administration
224.0.1.0224.0.1.26 Various audio, video, and database application
224.0.2.1 BSD "rwho" service
224.0.2.2 SUN RPC services
224.0.3.0224.0.4.255 RFE conferencing system
224.0.5.0224.0.5.127 CDPD groups
224.0.6.0224.0.6.255 Cornell ISIS project
224.1.0.0224.1.255.255 ST multicast groups
224.2.0.0224.2.255.255 Multimedia conference calls
224.3.0.0224.251.255.255 UNASSIGNED
224.252.0224.251.255.255 DIS transient groups
225.0.0.0231.255.255.255 UNASSIGNED
232.0.0.0232.255.255.255 VMTP transient groups
233.0.0.0238.255.255.255 UNASSIGNED
239.0.0.0239.255.255.255 Administrative scoping

224.0.0.1 is the "all-hosts" group. A message sent to this address is transmitted to all the hosts on the local area network, but is not forwarded by any multicast routers. Thus the all-hosts group is the multicast equivalent of the broadcast address.

224.0.0.2 is the "all-routers" group. All multicast-capable routers are required to join this group at startup time.

Other addresses in this range are reserved for the use of specific router types. For example, 224.0.0.4 is the "all DVMRP routers" group, joined by routers using the DVMRP protocol. 224.0.0.5 is reserved for OSPF routers, 224.0.0.9 for RIP2 routers, and so on.

Other addresses in multicast space are reserved for well-known applications, and although some of them are not much used, you're advised to avoid them. You'll find a more comprehensive list of well-known addresses at http://www.isi.cdn/in-notes/iana/assignments/mnln-castaddresses. Three large blocks of multicast addresses are unassigned and are safe for you to use for development:

  • 224.3.0.0224.251.255.255 (16,318,464 addresses)

  • 225.0.0.0231.255.255.255 (117,440,512 addresses)

  • 233.0.0.0238.255.255.255 (100,663,296 addresses)

Multicast Addresses and Hardware Filtering

Recall from the last chapter that one of the limitations of broadcasting is that it forces every host on the LAN to process each packet. Multicasting is more efficient than this. When an application joins a multicast group, the host's network interface card is configured to receive multicast packets bound for that group, a process called "imperfect hardware filtering." The interface hands off received packets to the operating system, which then delivers them to the correct application (Figure 21.1).

Figure 21.1. Multicast packets are filtered by the interface card and passed through routers

graphics/21fig01.gif

The filtering performed by the interface card is "imperfect" because it uses a hashing scheme to choose which packets to accept. This scheme occasionally allows some irrelevant packets (those bound for groups the host has not joined) through as well. However, any irrelevant packets are discarded by the operating system in a second "perfect software filtering" step. Hence, multicasting is not as efficient as unicasting, in which the network card perfectly filters out packets bound for irrelevant IP addresses; but it is much more efficient than broadcasting, in which the card exercises no discrimination.

From the application programming standpoint, you do not have to worry about multicast hardware filtering, except to know that heavy use of multicasting would not have the same impact on your network that a similar level of broadcasting would.

Multicasting Across WANs

Unlike broadcasts, multicasts were designed to be routed. Multicast packets can be routed between subnets or across wide area networks (WANs). A specialized multicast routing protocol supervises this process.

When an application joins a multicast group, its host sends a message to the local router to inform it of that fact. The router then forwards that group's multicast messages from the WAN to the host's subnet. As additional hosts in the subnet join the same group, the router keeps track of them, both passively by receiving join messages and actively by periodically polling the subnet for each host's membership list. When an application departs from a multicast group, its host sends a depart message to the local router. When the last host has departed from a multicast group, the router stops forwarding the corresponding packets.

Multicast routers periodically exchange information about the groups that the adjacent routers wish to receive, collaboratively building a tree that describes how multicast messages on a particular group should be distributed. This allows messages transmitted to a multicast group to be distributed in an efficient manner to just those networks and hosts that are interested in receiving them.

In order for any of this to work, however, you must be equipped with multicast-capable routers. Many newer routers, such as those from Cisco systems, are multicast capable, but some are not. Another option is to build a router from a UNIX host that is capable of multicast routing. For example, recent versions of the Linux operating system have built-in multicast routing capabilities, although this feature must usually be enabled by recompiling the kernel. You would also need the mrouted router daemon to take advantage of this functionality.

It is also possible to work around a nonmulticast-capable router by tunneling through it using ordinary unicast packets. The mrouted daemon can do this, provided that it is running on hosts on each subnet that you wish to share multicast packets.

To send or receive multicasts across the Internet, you may create a private multicast network by tunneling between LANs using mrouted or the equivalent. Alternatively, you can participate in the public multicast network, MBONE, which is used by a loose coalition of public and private organizations for Internet-based broadcasting services. In addition to providing an Internet-wide multicasting backbone, MBONE provides a simple session-announcement service that notifies you when certain public activities, such as a video conference, are scheduled to occur. Session announcements also provide information about the multicast addresses and ports on which the session will be transmitted so that client software can be configured properly to receive the information.

Joining the MBONE requires the cooperation of your Internet Service Provider and possibly the network provider as well. Appendix D contains more sources of information on setting up multicast routing and connecting with the MBONE.

Multicast TTLs

Since multicast messages can be routed, you need a way to control how far they can go. You wouldn't want a whiteboard application intended for interdepartmental conferences in your organization to be multicast across the Internet.

Multicasting uses a simple but effective technique to control the scope of messages. Each packet contains a time-to-live (TTL) field that is set to an arbitrary positive integer between 1 and 255. Every time the packet crosses a router, its TTL is decremented by 1. When the TTL reaches 0, the packet is discarded.

By default, multicast packets have a TTL of 1, meaning that they won't be routed across subnets. As soon as they hit the first router, their TTL reaches 0 and they expire. To arrange for a packet to be forwarded, set its TTL to a higher value. In general, a packet can cross TTL-1 routers.

To provide finer control over routing of multicast packets, an organization can assign "threshold" values to each outgoing interface of a multicast router. The router will forward the packet only if its TTL matches or exceeds the threshold. To illustrate this, consider the hypothetical company in Figure 21.2. It has three departments, each of which is large enough to contain several subnets. Each department's subnets are connected with a departmental router (labeled A, B, and C), and the departments are interconnected via the central interdepartmental router "D." Router D also acts as the gateway to the Internet. Each departmental router uses the default threshold of 1 on the subnet interfaces, but a threshold of 3 on the interface that connects it to the central router. Similarly, the central router has a threshold of 31 on the interface that connects it to the Internet. This setup allows the scope of a packet to be precisely controlled by its TTL. Packets with TTLs between 1 and 3 are forwarded within a department's subnets, but can't travel to other departments because they don't meet the threshold criterion of 3 required to be forwarded beyond the departmental router. Packets with TTLs between 4 and 32 can travel among the departments, but won't be forwarded to the Internet. The router threshold values control the scope of multicast applications, preventing applications intended for use only within a subnet, department, or organization from spilling over into places they're not wanted.

Figure 21.2. The thresholds on routers' outgoing interfaces control how far multicast messages can propagate.

graphics/21fig02.gif

Table 21.2 lists common TTL thresholds and their associated scopes. These values are conventions, and the exact definitions of "site," "organization," and "department" are up to you to determine.

Table 21.2. Conventional TTL Thresholds
TTL Scope
0 Restricted to the same host
1 Restricted to the same subnet
<32 Restricted to the same site, organization, or department
<64 Restricted to the same region
<128 Restricted to the same continent
<255 Unrestricted in scope; global

Using Multicast

The remainder of this chapter shows you how to use multicasting in Perl applications.

Sending Multicast Messages

Sending a multicast message is as straighforward as creating a UDP socket and sending a message to the desired multicast address. Unlike broadcasting messages, to send multicast messages you don't have to get permission from the operating system first.

Recall from Chapter 20 that we were able to identify all the hosts on the local area subnet by pinging the broadcast address. We can use the same trick to identify multicast-capable hosts by sending a packet to the all-hosts group, 224.0.0.1:

% ping 224.0.0.1
 PING 224.0.0.1 (224.0.0.1): 56 data bytes
 64 bytes from 127.0.0.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=1.0 ms
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.47: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=1.2 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.46: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=1.3 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.55: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=1.5 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.43: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=1.7 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.61: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=1.9 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.33: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=2.1 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.36: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=2.2 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.45: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=2.8 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.32: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=3.0 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.48: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=3.1 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.58: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=3.3 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.57: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=3.5 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.40: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=3.7 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.39: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=3.9 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.31: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=4.0 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.34: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=4.5 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.37: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=4.7 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.38: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=4.9 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.41: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=5.1 ms (DUP!)
 64 bytes from 143.48.31.35: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=5.2 ms (DUP!)
 

As in the earlier broadcast example, a variety of machines responded to the ping, including the loopback device (127.0.0.1) and a mixture of UNIX and Windows machines. Unlike the broadcast example, two laser printers on the subnetwork did not respond to the multicast call, presumably because they are not multicast capable. Similarly, we could ping 224.0.0.2, the all-routers group, to discover all multicast-capable routers on the LAN, 224.0.0.4 to discover all DVMRP routers, and so forth.

For a Perl script to send a multicast message, it has only to create a UDP socket and send to the desired group address. To illustrate this, we can use the broadcast echo client from the previous chapter (Figure 20.2) to discover all multicast-capable hosts on the local subnet that are running an echo server. The program doesn't need modification; instead of giving the broadcast address as the command-line argument, we just use the address for the all-hosts group:

broadcast_echo_cli.pl 224.0.0.1
 hi there
 received 9 bytes from 143.48.31.42:7
 received 9 bytes from 143.48.31.30:7
 received 9 bytes from 143.48.31.40:7
 

Interestingly, the list of servers that respond to the echo client is much smaller than it was for either the multicast ping test or the broadcast ping test of the previous chapter. After some investigation, the difference turned out to be nine Solaris machines whose kernels were not configured for multicasting. Apparently there was sufficient low-level multicasting code built into the kernel of these machines to allow them to respond to ICMP ping messages, but not to higher-level multicasts.

Socket Options for Multicast Send

By default, when you issue a multicast message, it is sent from the default interface with a TTL of 1. In addition, the message "loops back" to the same host you sent it in the same manner that broadcast packets do. You can change one or more of these defaults using a set of three IP-level socket options that are specific for multicasting.

IP_MULTICAST_TTL The IP_MULTICAST_TTL option gets or sets the TTL for outgoing packets on this socket. Its argument must be an integer between 1 and 255, packed into binary using the "I" format.

IP_MULTICAST_LOOP IP_MULTICAST_LOOP activates or deactivates the loopback property of multicast messages. Its argument, if true, causes outgoing multicast messages to loop back so that they are received by the host (the default behavior). If false, this behavior is suppressed. Note that this has nothing to do with the loopback interface.

IP_MULTICAST_IF The IP_MULTICAST_IF socket option allows you to control which network interface the multicast message will be issued from, much as you can control where broadcast packets go by choosing the appropriate broadcast address. The argument is the packed IP address of the interface created using inet_aton(). If an interface is not explicitly set, the operating system picks an appropriate one for you.

There is a "gotcha" when using getsockopt() to retrieve the value of IP_MULTICAST_IF under the Linux operating system. This OS accepts the packed 4-byte interface address as the argument to setsockopt() but returns a 12-byte ip_mreqn structure from calls to getsockopt() (see the following description of the related ip_mreq structure). This undocumented behavior is a bug that will be fixed in kernel versions 2.4 and higher. We work around this behavior in the IO::Multicast module developed in the next section.

Unlike all the other socket options we have seen so far, the multicast options apply not to the socket at the SOL_SOCKET level but to the IP protocol layer (which is responsible for routing packets and other functions related to IP addresses). The second argument passed to getsockopt() and setsockopt() must be the protocol number for the IP layer, which you can retrieve by calling getprotobyname() using 'IP' as the protocol name. This example illustrates how to turn off loopback for a socket named $soc:

my $ip_level = getprotobyname('IP') or die "Can't get protocol: $!";
 setsockopt($sock,$ip_level,IP_MULTICAST_LOOPBACK,0);
 

Because the IO::Socket->sockopt() method assumes the SOL_SOCKET level, you cannot use it for multicast options. However, you can use IO::Socket's setsockopt() and getsockopt() methods, which are just thin wrappers around the underlying Perl function calls.

The multicast option constants are defined in the system header file netinet/in.h. To get access to the proper values for your operating system, you must use the h2ph tool to convert the system header files.

Receiving Multicast Messages

Multicast messages are sent to the combination of a multicast group address and a port. To receive them, your program must create a UDP socket, bind it to the appropriate port, and then join the socket to one or more multicast addresses.

A single socket can belong to multiple multicast groups simultaneously, in which case the socket receives all messages sent to any of the groups that it currently belongs to. The socket also continues to receive messages directed to its unicast address. The number of groups that a socket can belong to is limited by the operating system; a limit of 20 is typical.

Two new socket options allow you to join or leave multicast groups: IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP and IP_DROP_MEMBERSHIP.

IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP Join a multicast group, thereby receiving all group transmissions directed to the port the socket is bound to. The argument is a packed binary string consisting of the desired multicast address concatenated to the address of the local interface (derived from a C structure called an ip_mreq). This allows you to control not only what multicast groups to join but also on which interface to receive their messages. If you are willing to accept multicast transmissions on any interface, use INADDR_ANY as the local interface address.

The outgoing multicast interface (set by IP_MULTICAST_IF) is not tied in any way to the interface used to receive multicast packets. You can send multicast packets from one network interface and receive them on another.

IP_DROP_MEMBERSHIP Leave a multicast group, terminating membership in the group. The argument is identical to the one used by IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP.

As with IP_MULTICAST_IF and the other options discussed earlier, the IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP and IP_DROP_MEMBERSHIP options apply to the IP layer, so you must pass setsockopt() an option level equal to the IP protocol number returned by getprotobyname().

These two options may sound more complicated than they are. The only tricky part is creating the ip_mreq argument to pass to setsockopt(). You can do by passing the group address to inet_aton() and then concatenating the result with the INADDR_ANY constant. This code snippet shows how to join a multicast group, in this case the one with address 225.1.1.3:

my $mcast_addr = inet_aton('225.1.1.3');
 my $local_addr = INADDR_ANY;
 my $ip_mreq = $mcast_addr . $local_addr;
 my $ip_level = getprotobyname('IP') or die "Can't get protocol: $!";
 setsockopt($sock,$ip_level,IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP,$ip_mreq)
               or die "Can't join group: $!";
 

You drop membership in a group in the same way, using the IP_DROP_MEMBERSHIP constant. You do not have to drop membership in all groups before exiting the program. The operating system will take care of this for you when the socket is destroyed.

Oddly, there is no way to ask the operating system what multicast groups a socket is a member of. You have to keep track of this yourself.

The IO::Socket::Multicast Module

This section develops a small module that makes getting and setting multicasting options more convenient. As in the IO::Interface module discussed in the previous chapter, it is a pure-Perl solution that gets system constants from h2ph-generated.ph files. You'll find a C-language version of IO::Multicast on CPAN, and if you have a C or C++ compiler handy, I recommend that you install it rather than hassling with h2ph.

IO::Socket::Multicast is a descendent of IO::Socket::INET. It implements all its parents' methods and adds several new methods related to multicasting. As a convenience, this module makes UDP, rather than TCP, the default protocol for new socket objects.

$socket->mcast_ttl([$ttl])

Get or set the socket's multicast time to live. If you provide an integer argument, it will be used to set the TTL and the method returns true if the attempt was successful. Without an argument, mcast_ttl() returns the current value of the TTL.

$socket->mcast_loopback([$boolean])

Get or set the loopback property on outgoing multicast packets. Provide a true value to enable loopbacking, false to inhibit it. The method returns true if it was successful. Without an argument, the method returns the current loopback setting.

$socket->mcast_if([$if])

Get or set the interface for outgoing multicast packets. For your convenience, you can use either the interface device name, such as eth0, or its dotted-quad interface address. The method returns true if the attempt to set the interface was successful. Without any argument, it returns the current interface, or if no interface is set, it returns undef (in which case the operating system chooses an appropriate interface automatically).

$socket->mcast_add($multicast_group [,$interface])

Join a multicast group, allowing the socket to receive messages multicast to that group.

Specify the group address using dotted-quad form (e.g., "225.0.0.3"). The optional second argument allows you to tell the operating system which network interface to use to receive the group. If not specified, the OS listens on all multicast-capable interfaces. For your convenience, you can use either the interface device name or the interface address.

This method returns true if the group was successfully added; otherwise, it returns false. In case of failure, $! contains additional information.

You may call mcast_add() more than once in order to join multiple groups.

$socket->mcast_drop($multicast_group [,$interface])

Drop membership in a multicast group, disabling the socket's reception of messages to that group. Specify the group using its dotted-quad address. If you specified the interface in mcast_add(), you must again specify that interface when leaving the group.[1] You may use either a device name or an IP address to specify the interface.

This method returns true if the group was added successfully, and false in case of an error, such as dropping a group to which the socket does not already belong.

[1] This behavior varies somewhat among operating systems. With some, if you omit the interface, the operating system drops the first matching multicast group it finds. With others, the interface argument to mcast_add() must exactly match mcast_drop().

Figure 21.3 contains the complete code for the IO::Socket:: Multicast module. We'll walk through the relevant bits.

Figure 21.3. The IO::Socket::Multicast module

graphics/21fig03.gif

Lines 17: Module setup The first part of the module consists of boilerplate module declarations and bookkeeping. Among other things, we bring in the IO::Interface module developed in the previous chapter and declare this module a subclass of IO::Socket::INET.

Lines 812: Bring in Socket and .ph definitions We next load functions from the Socket module and from netinet/in.ph. As in the IO::Interface module, to avoid clashing prototype warnings from duplicate functions defined in the .ph file, we call the Socket module's import() method manually. netinet/in.ph contains definitions for the various IFF_MULTICAST socket options.

We call getprotobyname() to retrieve the IP protocol number for use with setsockopt() and getsockopt(). If the protocol number isn't available for some reason, we default to 0, which is a common value for this constant.

Lines 1322: The new() and configure() methods We override the IO::Socket::INET new() and configure() methods so as to make UDP the default protocol if no Proto argument is given explicitly.

Lines 2329: mcast_add() The mcast_add() method receives the socket, the multicast group address, and the optional local interface to receive on. If an interface is specified, the method calls the internal function get_if_addr() to deal appropriately with the alternative ways that the interface can be specified. If no interface is specified, then get_if_addr() returns "0.0.0.0", the dotted-quad form of the INADDR_ANY wildcard address.

We then build an ip_mreq structure by concatenating the binary forms of the group and local IP address, and pass this to setsockopt() with a socket level of $IP_LEVEL and a command of IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP.

Lines 3036: mcast_drop() This method contains the same code as mcast_add(), except that at the very end it calls setsockopt() with a command of IP_DROP_MEMBERSHIP.

Lines 3747: mcast_if() This method assigns or retrieves the interface for outgoing multicast messages. If the caller has specified an interface, we turn it into an address by calling get_if_addr(), translate it into its packed binary version using inet_aton(), and call setsockopt() with the IP_MULTICAST_IF command.

For retrieving the interface, things are slightly more complicated because of buggy behavior under the Linux operating system, where getsockopt() returns a 12-byte ip_mreqn structure rather than the expected 4-byte packed IP address of the interface (I found this out by examining the kernel source code). The desired information resides in the second field of this structure, beginning at byte number 4. We test the length of the getsockopt() result, and if it is larger than 4, we extract the address using substr(). We then call an internal routine named find_interface() to turn this IP address into an interface device name.

Lines 4856: The mcast_loopback () method The mcast_loopback() method is more straightforward. If a second argument is supplied, it calls setsockopt() with a command of IP_MULTICAST_LOOP and an argument of 1 to turn loopback on and 0 to turn loopback off. If no argument is supplied, then the method calls getsockopt() to retrieve the loopback setting. getsockopt() returns the setting as a packed binary string, so we convert it into a human-readable number by unpacking it using the " I " (unsigned integer) format.

Lines 5765: mcast_ttl() The mcast_ttl() method gets or sets the TTL on outgoing multicast messages. If a TTL value is specified, we pack it into a binary integer with the " I " format and pass it to setsockopt() with the IP_MULTICAST_TTL command. If no value is passed, we reverse the process.

Lines 6675: get_if_addr() function The last two functions are used internally. get_if_addr() allows the caller to specify network interfaces using either a dotted IP address or the device name. The function takes two arguments consisting of the socket and the interface. If the interface argument is empty, then the function returns "0.0.0.0," which is the dotted-quad equivalent of the INADDR_ANY wildcard. If the interface looks like a dotted-quad address by pattern match, then the function returns it unmodified.

Otherwise, we assume that the argument is a device name. We call the socket's if_addr() method (created by IO::Interface) to retrieve the corresponding interface address. If this is unsuccessful, we die with an error message. As a consistency check, we call the if_flags() method to confirm that the interface is multicast-capable; if it is not, we die. Otherwise, we return the interface address.

Lines 7682: find_interface() function The last function performs the reverse of get_if_addr(), returning the interface device name corresponding to an IP address. It retrieves the list of device names by calling the socket's if_list() method (defined in IO::Interface) and loops over them until it finds the one with the desired IP address.

Sample Multicast Applications

We'll look at two example multicast applications. One is a simple time-of-day server, which intermittently broadcasts the current time to whoever is interested. The other is a reworking of Chapter 19's chat system.

Time-of-Day Multicasting Server

The first example application is a server that intermittently transmits its hostname and the time of day to a predetermined port and multicast address. Client applications that wish to receive these time-of-day messages join the group and echo what they receive to standard output. You might use something like this to monitor the status of your organization's servers; if a server stops sending status messages, it might be an early warning that it had gone offline.

Thanks to the IO::Socket::Multicast module, both client and server applications are less than 25 lines of code. We'll look at the server first (Figure 21.4).

Figure 21.4. Multicast time-of-day server

graphics/21fig04.gif

Lines 14: Load modules We load the IO::Socket and IO::Socket::Multicast modules. We also bring in the Sys::Hostname module, a standard part of the Perl distribution that allows you to determine the hostname in a OS-independent way.

Lines 58: Get arguments We choose an interval of 15 seconds between transmissions. We then read the port, multicast group address, and the TTL for transmissions from the command line; if they're not defined, we assume reasonable defaults. For the port, we arbitrarily choose 2070. For the multicast group, we choose 224.225.226.227, one of the many unassigned groups. For TTL, we choose 31, which, by convention, is an organization-wide scope (messages will stay within the organization but will not be forwarded to the outside world).

Lines 912: Set up socket We create a new multicasting UDP socket by calling IO::Socket::Multicast->new() and set the multicast TTL for outgoing messages by calling the socket's mcast_ttl() method.

Lines 1316: Prepare to transmit messages We create a packed destination address using inet_aton() and sockaddr_in(>), using the multicast address and port specified on the command line. We also retrieve the name of the host and store it in a variable for later use.

Lines 1724: Main loop The server now enters its main loop. We want to transmit on even multiples of PERIOD seconds, so we use the % operator to compute the modulus of time() over PERIOD. If we are at an even multiple of PERIOD, then we create a status message consisting of the local time followed by a slash and the hostname, producing this type of format:

Mon May 29 19:05:15 2000/pesto.cshl.org
 

We send a copy of the message to the socket using send() with the multicast destination set up previously. After transmitting the message, we sleep for 1 second and loop again.

Time-of-Day Multicast Client

We'll now look at a client that can receive messages from the server (Figure 21.5).

Figure 21.5. Time-of-day multicast client

graphics/21fig05.gif

Lines 13: Load modules We bring in IO::Socket and IO::Socket::Multicast modules as before.

Lines 45: Retrieve command-line arguments We fetch the port and multicast address from the command line. If these arguments are not provided, we default to the values used by the server.

Lines 710: Set up socket Next we set up the socket we'll use for receiving multicast messages. We create a UDP socket using IO::Socket::Multicast->new, passing the LocalPort argument to bind() the socket to the desired port. The newly created socket is now ready to receive unicast messages directed to that port, but not multicasts. To enable reception of group messages, we call mcast_add() with the specified multicast group address.

Lines 1116: Client main loop The remainder of the client is a simple loop that calls recv() to receive messages on the socket. We unpack the sender's address using sockaddr_in() and print the address and the message body to standard output.

To test the client, I ran the server on several machines on my LAN, and the client on my desktop system. The client's output over a period of 45 seconds was this (blank lines have been inserted between intervals to aid readability):

% time_of_day_cli.pl
 143.48.31.66: Wed Aug 23 13:31:00 2000/swiss
 143.48.31.45: Wed Aug 23 13:31:00 2000/feta.cshl.org
 143.48.31.54: Wed Aug 23 10:31:00 2000/pesto
 143.48.31.47: Wed Aug 23 13:31:00 2000/turunmaa.cshl.org
 143.48.31.43: Wed Aug 23 13:31:00 2000/romano.cshl.org
 143.48.31.69: Wed Aug 23 13:31:00 2000/munster.cshl.org
 143.48.31.63: Wed Aug 23 13:31:00 2000/whey.cshl.org
 
 143.48.31.66: Wed Aug 23 13:31:15 2000/swiss
 143.48.31.69: Wed Aug 23 13:31:15 2000/munster.cshl.org
 143.48.31.63: Wed Aug 23 13:31:15 2000/whey.cshl.org
 143.48.31.44: Wed Aug 23 13:31:15 2000/edam.cshl.org
 143.48.31.45: Wed Aug 23 13:31:15 2000/feta.cshl.org
 143.48.31.54: Wed Aug 23 10:31:15 2000/pesto
 143.48.31.47: Wed Aug 23 13:31:15 2000/turunmaa.cshl.org
 143.48.31.43: Wed Aug 23 13:31:15 2000/romano.cshl.org
 
 143.48.31.66: Wed Aug 23 13:31:30 2000/swiss
 143.48.31.43: Wed Aug 23 13:31:30 2000/romano.cshl.org
 143.48.31.69: Wed Aug 23 13:31:30 2000/munster.cshl.org
 143.48.31.63: Wed Aug 23 13:31:30 2000/whey.cshl.org
 143.48.31.44: Wed Aug 23 13:31:30 2000/edam.cshl.org
 143.48.31.45: Wed Aug 23 13:31:30 2000/feta.cshl.org
 143.48.31.54: Wed Aug 23 10:31:30 2000/pesto
 143.48.31.47: Wed Aug 23 13:31:30 2000/turunmaa.cshl.org
 

All the machines on my office network are supposed to have their internal clocks synchronized by the network time protocol. The fact that " pesto " is off by several hours relative to the others suggests that something is wrong with this machine's time-zone setting. The example client was unexpectedly useful in identifying a problem.

Another thing to notice is that we don't see a transmission from edam.cshl.org in the first group but transmissions from it appear later. It may have missed a time interval (the sleep() function is only accurate to plus or minus 1 second), or the multicast message from that machine may have been lost. Multicast messages, like other UDP messages, are unreliable.

Multicast Chat System

We'll now use multicasting to redesign the architecture of the UDP-based Internet chat system developed in Chapter 19. Recall that the heart of the system was five lines of code from the server's ChatObjects::Channel module:

sub send_to_all {
   my $self = shift;
   my ($code,$text) = @_;
   $_->send($code,$text) foreach $self->users;
 }
 

Given a message code and message body, send_to_all() looks up each registered user and sends it a copy of the message. The socket transmission is done by a ChatObjects::User object, which maintains a copy of the client's address and port number.

The weakness of this system is that if there are a great many registered users, the server sends out an equally large number of UDP packets, loading its local network and routers. This system can probably scale to support thousands of registered users, but not tens of thousands (depending on how "chatty" they are).

In the reimplemented version, we'll replace the server's send_to_all() method with a version that looks like this:

sub send_to_all {
   my $self = shift;
   my ($code,$text) = @_;
   my $dest = $self->mcast_dest;
   my $comm = $self->comm;
   $comm->send_event($code,$text,$dest) || warn $!;
 }
 

Instead of looking up each client and sending it a unicast message, we make one call to the communication object's send_event() method, using as the destination a multicast group address. We'll go over the details of this method when we walk through the code.

Let's look at the revised chat protocol from the client's point of view. In the original version of this system, the client did all its communication via a single UDP socket permanently assigned to the server. In the new version, we alter this paradigm:

  1. The client creates a socket for communicating with the server. This is the same as the original application. One socket will be used for all messages sent by the client to the server; we'll call this the control socket.

  2. The client creates a second socket for receiving multicasts. When the client logs in, the server responds with two messages, one acknowledging successful login and the other providing the port number on which to listen for multicasts. The client responds by creating a second socket and binding it to the indicated port. The client now select()s over the multicast socket as well as over standard input and the control socket.

  3. The client adds multicast groups to subscribe to channels. There is a one-to-one correspondence between chat channels and multicast groups. When the client subscribes to a new chat channel, the server responds with an acknowledgment that contains the multicast group address on which public messages to that group will be transmitted. The client adds the group to the socket using mcast_add().

  4. The client drops multicast groups to depart channels. The client calls mcast_drop() when it wants to depart a channel.

  5. The client sends public messages as before. To send a public message, the client sends it to the server and the server retransmits it as a multicast. Therefore, the client code for sending a public message is unchanged from the original version.

From the server's point of view, the following changes are needed:

  1. The server has both a port and a multicast port. In addition to the port used to receive control messages from clients, the server is configured with a port used for its multicast messages. This could have been the same as the control port, but it was cleaner to keep the two distinct.

  2. The multicast port is sent to the client at login time. We need a new message to send to the client at login time to tell it what port to use for receiving multicasts.

  3. Each chat channel has a multicast group address. Each chat group has a distinct multicast address. To send a message to all members of a channel, the server looks up its corresponding group address and sends a single message to that address.

A feature of this design is that the client sends public messages to the server using conventional unicasting, and the server retransmits the message to members of the channel via multicast. A reasonable alternative would be to make the client responsible for sending public messages directly to the relevant multicast address. Either architecture would work, and both would achieve the main goal of avoiding congestion on the server's side of the connection.

I chose the first architecture for two reasons. First, I wanted to avoid too radical a rewriting of the client, which would have been necessary if the burden of keeping track of which channels the user belonged to had been shifted to the client side. Second, I wanted to leave the way open for the server to exercise editorial control over the clients' content. Many chat systems have a "muzzling" function that allows the server administrator to silence a user who is becoming abusive. Because all public messages are forced to pass through the server, it would be possible to add this feature later. A final consideration is the TTL on outgoing multicasts, which could have different meanings on different clients' networks. Having the server issue all the multicasts enforces uniformity on the scope of public messages.

We'll walk through the server first, and then the client. The first change is very minor (Figure 21.6). We add a new event code constant named SET_MCAST_PORT to ChatObjects::ChatCodes. This is the message sent by the server to the client to tell it what port to bind to in order to receive multicast transmissions.

Figure 21.6. Revised ChatObjects::ChatCodes

graphics/21fig06.gif

Next we look at the server script (Figure 21.7). It is very similar to the original version, so we'll just go over the parts that are different.

Figure 21.7. Multicast server

graphics/21fig07.gif

Lines 47: Load multicast subclasses of modules Instead of loading the ChatObjects::Channel and ChatObjects::Comm modules, we load slightly modified subclasses named ChatObjects::MChannel and ChatObjects::MComm respectively.

Lines 1921: Read command-line arguments We read three arguments from the command line corresponding to the control port, the multicast port, and the TTL on outgoing public messages. If the multicast port isn't provided, we use the control port plus one. If the TTL isn't provided, we choose the organization-wide scope of 31.

Line 22: Create a new communications object We call ChatObjects::MComm->new() to create a new communications (comm) object. As in the original version of this server, we use the comm object as an intermediary for sending and receiving events from clients. Its primary job is to pack and unpack chat system messages using the binary format we designed. This subclass of the original ChatObjects::Comm takes three arguments: the control port, the multicast port, and the TTL for outgoing multicast messages.

Lines 2330: Create a bunch of channels We create several chat channels in the form of ChatObjects::MChannel objects. The constructor for this subclass takes four arguments, the title and description of the channel, as before, and two new arguments consisting of a multicast group address for the channel and the comm object. We arbitrarily use group addresses in the range 225.1.0.1 through 225.1.0.5 for this purpose.

Lines 3243: Main loop The server main loop is identical to the earlier version.

Lines 4450: Handle logins The do_login() is slightly modified. After successfully logging in the user and creating a corresponding ChatObjects::User object, we call the user object's send() method to send the client a SET_MCAST_PORT event. The argument for this event is the multicast port, which we retrieve from the comm object's mport() method (we could also get the value from the $mport global variable).

Figure 21.8 lists the code for the ChatObjects::MComm module. It is a subclass of ChatObjects::Comm that overrides the new() constructor and adds one method, mport().

Figure 21.8. ChatObjects::MComm module

graphics/21fig08.gif

Lines 16: Load modules We tell Perl that ChatObjects::MComm is a subclass of ChatObjects::Comm and load ChatObjects::Comm and IO::Socket. We also load IO::Socket::Multicast so as to have access to the various mcast_ methods.

Lines 715: Override new() method We replace ChatObjects::Comm->new() with a new version. We begin this version by invoking the parent class's new() method to construct the control socket. When this is done, we remember the multicast port argument in the object hash and set the TTL on outgoing messages by calling mcast_ttl() on the control socket.

Line 16: The create_socket() method We override our parent's create_socket() method with one that creates a suitable IO::Socket::Multicast object, rather than IO::Socket::INET.

Line 17: The mport() method This new method looks up the multicast port in the object hash and returns it.

Lines 1823: The mcast_event() method This new method is responsible for sending an event message, given the event code, the event text, and the multicast destination address. We use sockaddr_in() to create a suitable packed destination address using our multicast port and multicast IP address, and pass the event code, text, and address to our inherited send_event() method.

We turn now to the ChatObjects::MChannel module (Figure 21.9). This module, which is responsible for transmitting public messages to all currently enrolled members of a channel, requires the most extensive changes.

Figure 21.9. ChatObjects::MChannel module

graphics/21fig09.gif

Lines 26: Load modules We declare ChatObjects::MChannel as a subclass of ChatObjects::Channel, so that Perl falls back to the parent class for any methods that aren't explicitly defined in this class.

Lines 713: Override new() method We override the new() method to save information about the channel's multicast address and the comm object to use for outgoing messages. We begin by invoking the parent class's new() method. We then copy the method's third and fourth arguments into hash keys named mcast_addr and comm, respectively.

Lines 1415: mcast_addr() and comm() accessors We define two accessors named mcast_addr() and comm(), to retrieve the multicast address for the channel and the comm object, respectively.

Lines 1620: info() method We override the channel's info() method, which sends descriptive information about the channel to the client. Previously this method returned the name of the channel, the number of users enrolled, and the description. We modify this slightly so that the dotted-quad multicast IP address for the channel occupies a position between the user count and the description.

Lines 2126: mcast_dest() method The mcast_dest() method returns the packed binary destination address for the multicast group. It retrieves the multicast port from the server object and uses sockaddr_in() to combine it with the dotted-quad address returned by mcast_addr(). We explicitly put sockaddr_in() into a scalar context so that it packs the port and IP address together, rather than attempting to unpack its argument.

Lines 2733: send_to_all() method The send_to_all() method is called whenever it's necessary to send a message to all members of a channel. Such messages are sent when a user joins or departs a channel, as well as when a user sends a public message to the channel. We call mcast_dest() to get the packed binary address for multicasts directed to the channel, and then pass this destination, along with the event code and content, to the comm object's send_event() method.

Note that the ChatObject::MComm class doesn't itself define the send_event() method. This is inherited from the parent class and is used to send both unicast messages to individual clients and multicast messages to all channel subscribers.

Only a few parts of the client application need to be modified to support multicasting, so we list only the relevant portions of the source code (Figure 21.10). The full source code for the modified client is in Appendix A.

Figure 21.10. Internet chat client using multicast

graphics/21fig10.gif

Lines 19: Load modules In addition to the IO::Socket and IO::Select modules, we now load ChatObjects::MComm and IO::Socket::Multicast in order to gain access to mcast_add() and friends.

Lines 2336: Define handlers for server events The %MESSAGES hash maps server events to subroutines that are invoked to handle the events. We add SET_MCAST_PORT to the list of handled events, making its handler the new create_msocket() subroutine.

Lines 3742: Initialize the control and multicast sockets We read the command-line arguments to get the default server address and control port. We then create a standard ChatObjects::Comm object, which holds the server unicast address and port. We store this in $comm. This will be used to exchange chat messages with the server. For multicast messages we will later create a ChatObjects::MComm object.

Lines 4154: Log in and enter select loop We now attempt to log into the server. If successful, we create an IO::Select object on the control socket and STDIN and enter the main loop of the client, handling user commands and server messages. This part of the program hasn't changed from the original but is repeated here in order to provide context.

Lines 5967: Handle the SET_MCAST_PORT message The create_msocket() subroutine is responsible for handling SET_MCAST_PORT messages sent from the server. It must do two things: create a new ChatObjects::MComm object bound to the indicated port and add the new comm object's socket to the list of filehandles monitored by the client's main select() loop.

The function first examines the port number sent by the server in the message body and refuses to handle the message unless it is numeric. If the $msocket global variable is already defined, the function removes it from the list of handles monitored by the global IO::Select object (currently, this never happens, but a future iteration of this server might change the multicast port dynamically).

The next step is to create a new comm object to handle incoming multicasts. We call ChatObjects::MComm->new() to create a new communications object wrapped around a multicasting UDP socket.

The last step is to add the newly created socket to the list that the global IO::Select object monitors.

Lines 124136: Join and part channels The join_part() subroutine is called to handle the server's JOIN_ACK and PART_ACK message codes. The subroutine parses the message from the server, which contains the affected channel's multicast address. In the case of a JOIN_ACK message, we tell the multicast socket to join the group by calling its mcast_add() method. Otherwise, we call mcast_drop().

Lines 137142: List a channel A last, trivial change is to the list_channel() method, which lists information about a channel in response to a CHANNEL_ITEM message. The format of this message was changed to include the channel's multicast address, so the regular expression that parses it must change accordingly.

The new multicast-enabled version of the chat server works well on a local area network and between subnets separated by multicast routers. It will not work across the Internet unless the ISPs at both ends route multicast packets or you set up a multicast tunnel with mrouted or equivalent.

One limitation of this client is that only one user can run it on the same machine at the same time. This is because only one socket can be bound to the multicast port at a time. We could work around this limitation by setting the Reuse option during creation of the multicast socket. This would allow multiple sockets to bind to the same port but would create a situation in which, whenever one user subscribed to a channel, all other users on the machine would start to receive messages on that channel as well. To prevent this, the client would have to keep track of the channels it subscribed to and filter out messages coming from irrelevant ones.

Perhaps a better solution would be to allocate a range of ports for use by the chat system and have each client run through the allowed ports until it finds a free one that it can bind to. Alternatively, the server could keep track of the ports and IP addresses used by each client and use the SET_MCAST_PORT message to direct the client toward an unclaimed port.

Chapter 22. UNIX-Domain Sockets

In previous chapters we focused on TCP/IP sockets, which were designed to allow processes on different hosts to communicate. Sometimes, however, you'd like two or more processes on the same host to exchange messages. Although TCP/IP sockets can be used for this purpose (and often are), an alternative is to use UNIX-domain sockets, which were designed to support local communications.

The advantage of UNIX-domain sockets over TCP/IP for local interprocess communication is that they are more efficient and are guaranteed to be private to the machine. A TCP/IP-based service intended for local communications would have to check the source address of each incoming client to accept only those originating from the local host.

Once set up, UNIX-domain sockets look and act much like TCP/IP sockets. The process of reading and writing to them is the same, and the same concurrency-managing techniques that work with TCP/IP sockets apply equally well to UNIX-domain sockets. In fact, you can write an application for UNIX-domain sockets and then reengineer it for use on the network just by changing the way it sets up its sockets.

Using UNIX-Domain Sockets

Like TCP/IP sockets, two applications that wish to communicate must rendezvous at an agreed-on name. Instead of using the combination of IP address and port number for rendezvous, UNIX-domain sockets use a path on the local file system, such as /dev/log. They are created automatically when the socket is bound and appear in UNIX directory listings with an "s" at the beginning of the permission string. For example:

% ls -l /dev/log
 srw-rw-rw-   1 root     root          0 Jun 17 16:21 /dev/log
 

The socket files are not automatically removed after the socket is closed, and must be unlinked manually.

The Perl documentation occasionally refers to these files as "fifo's" because they follow first-in-first-out rules: The first byte of data written by a sending application is the first byte of data read by the receiver. UNIX-domain sockets are similar in many ways to UNIX pipes (Chapter 2), and in fact the two are frequently implemented on top of a common code base.

The "UNIX" in UNIX-domain sockets is apt. Although a few platforms, such as OS/2, have facilities similar to UNIX-domain sockets, most operating systems, including Windows and Macintosh, do not support them. However, Windows users can get UNIX-domain sockets by installing the free Cygwin32 compatibility library. This library is available from http://www.cygnus.com/cygwin/.

UNIX-domain sockets are used by the standard UNIX syslog daemon (Chapter 12), the Berkeley lpd printer service, and a number of newer applications such as the XMMS MP3 player (http://www.xmms.org/). In the syslog system, client applications write log messages to a UNIX-domain socket, such as /dev/log. As described in Chapter 14, the syslog daemon reads these messages, filters them according to their severity, and writes them to one or several log files. The lpd printer daemon uses a similar strategy to receive print jobs from clients.

XMMS has a more interesting use for UNIX-domain sockets. By creating and monitoring a UNIX-domain socket, XMMS can exchange information with clients. Among other things, clients can send XMMS commands to play a song or change its volume, or retrieve information from XMMS about what it's currently doing. Doug MacEachern's Xmms module, available from CPAN, provides a Perl interface to XMMS sockets.

Perl provides both a function-oriented and an object-oriented interface to UNIX-domain sockets. We'll look at each in turn.

Function-Oriented Interface to UNIX-Domain Sockets

Creating UNIX-domain sockets with the function-oriented interface is similar to creating TCP/IP sockets. You call socket() to create the socket, connect() to make an outgoing connection, or bind(), listen(), and accept() to accept incoming connections.

To create a UNIX-domain socket, call socket() with a domain type of AF_UNIX and a protocol of PF_UNSPEC (protocol unspecified). These constants are exported by the socket module. You are free to create either SOCK_STREAM or SOCK_DGRAM sockets:

use Socket;
 socket(S, AF_UNIX, SOCK_STREAM, PF_UNSPEC)
               or die "Can't create stream socket: $!
 socket(D, AF_UNIX, SOCK_DGRAM, PF_UNSPEC)
               or die "Can't create datagram socket: $!
 

Having created the socket, we can make an outgoing connection to a waiting server by calling connect(). The chief difference is that we must create the rendezvous address using a pathname and the utility function sockaddr_un (). This code fragment tries to connect to a server listening at the address /tmp/daytime:

my $dest = sockaddr_un('/tmp/daytime');
 connect(S,$dest) or die "Can't connect: $!";
 

A UNIX-domain address is simply a pathname that has been padded to a fixed length with nulls and can be created with sockaddr_un(). The members of the sockaddr_un() family of functions are similar to their IP counterparts:

$packed_addr = sockaddr_un($path)

($path) = sockaddr_un($packed_addr)

In a scalar context, sockaddr_un() takes a file pathname and turns it into a UNIX-domain destination address suitable for bind() and connect(). In an array context, the sockaddr_un() reverses this operation, which is handy for interpreting the return value of recv() and getsockname().

If this context-specific behavior makes you nervous, you can use the pack_sockaddr_un() and unpack_sockaddr_un() functions instead:

$packed_addr = pack_sockaddr_un($path)

pack_sockaddr_un() packs a file path into a UNIX domain address regardless of array or scalar context.

$path = unpack_sockaddr_un($packed_addr)

unpack_sockaddr_un() transforms a packed UNIX-domain socket into a file path, regardless of array or scalar context.

Servers must bind to a UNIX-domain address by calling bind() with the desired rendezvous address. This example binds to the socket named /tmp/daytime:

bind(S,sockaddr_un('/tmp/daytime')) or die "Can't bind: $!";
 

If successful, bind() returns a true value. Common reasons for failure include:

"address already in use" (EADDRINUSE) The rendezvous point already exists, as a regular file, a regular directory, or a socket created by a previous invocation of your script. UNIX-domain servers must unlink the socket file before they exit.

"permission denied" (EACCES) Permissions deny the current process the ability to create the socket file at the selected location. The same rules that apply to creating a file for writing apply to UNIX-domain sockets. On UNIX systems the /tmp directory is often chosen by unprivileged scripts as the location for sockets.

"not a directory" (ENOTDIR) The selected path included a component that was not a valid directory. Additional errors are possible if the selected path is not local. For example, socket addresses on read-only filesystems or network-mounted filesystems are disallowed.

Once a UNIX-domain socket is created and initialized, it can be used like a TCP/IP socket. Programs can call read(), sysread(), print(), or syswrite() to communicate in a stream-oriented fashion, or send() and recv() to use a message-oriented API. Servers may accept new incoming connections with listen() and accept().

The functions that return socket addresses, such as getpeername(), getsockname(), and recv(), return packed UNIX-domain addresses when used with UNIX-domain sockets. These must be unpacked with sockaddr_un() or unpack_sockaddr_un() to retrieve a human-readable file path.

You should be aware that some versions of Perl have a bug in the routines that return socket names. On such versions, the array forms of sockaddr_un() and unpack_sockaddr_un() will fail. This is not as bad as it sounds because UNIX-domain applications don't need to recover this information as frequently as TCP/IP applications do. However, if you do need to recover the pathname of the local or remote socket, you can work around the Perl bug by applying unpack() with a format of "x2z" to the value returned by getpeername() or getsockname():

$path = unpack "x2z",getpeername(S);
 

Another thing to be aware of is that a UNIX-domain socket created by a client can connect() without calling bind(), just as one can with a TCP/IP socket. In this case, the system creates an invisible endpoint for communication, and getsockname() returns a path of length 0. This is roughly equivalent to the operating system's method of using ephemeral ports for outgoing TCP/IP connections.

Object-Oriented Interface to UNIX-Domain Sockets

The standard IO::Socket module provides object-oriented access to UNIX-domain sockets. Simply create an object of type IO::Socket::UNIX, and use it as you would a TCP/IP-based IO::Socket object. Compared to IO::Socket::INET, the main change is the new() object constructor, which takes a different set of named arguments. IO::Socket::UNIX adds the hostpath() and peerpath() methods (described next) and does not support the TCP/IP-specific sockaddr(), sockport(), sockhost(>), peeraddr(), or peerport() methods.

$socket = IO::Socket::UNIX-new('/path/to/socket')

The single-argument form of IO::Socket::UNIX->new() attempts to connect to the indicated UNIX-domain socket, assuming a socket type of SOCK_STREAM. If successful, it returns an IO::Socket::UNIX object.

$socket = IO::Socket::UNIX-new(arg1 => val1, arg2 => val2,...)

The named-argument form of new() takes a set of name=> value pairs and creates a new IO::Socket::UNIX object. The recognized arguments are listed in Table 22.1.

$path = $socket->hostpath()

The hostpath() method returns the path to the UNIX socket at the local end. The method returns undef for unbound sockets.

$path = $socket- peerpat>()

peerpath() returns the path to the UNIX socket at the remote end. The method returns undef for unconnected sockets.

Table 22.1 lists the arguments recognized by IO:: Socket::UNIX->new(). Typical scenarios include:

  • Create a socket and connect() it to the process listening on /var/log.

    $socket = IO::Socket::UNIX->new(Type=>SOCK_STREAM,
                                     Peer=>'/dev/log');
     
  • Create a listening socket bound to /tmp/mysock. Allow up to SOMAXCONN incoming connections to wait in the incoming queue.

    $socket = IO::Socket::UNIX->new(Type => SOCK_STREAM,
                                     Local => '/tmp/mysock',
                                     Listen => SOMAXCONN);
     
  • Create a UNIX-domain socket for use with outgoing datagram transmissions.

    $socket = IO::Socket::UNIX->new(Type => SOCK_DGRAM);
     
  • Create a UNIX-domain socket bound to /tmp/mysock for use with incoming datagram transmissions.

$socket = IO::Socket::UNIX->new(Type => SOCK_DGRAM,
                                 Local=> '/tmp/mysock');
 

Table 22.1. Arguments to IO::Socket::UNIX->new()
Arguments Description Value
Type Socket type, defaults to SOCK_STREAM SOCK_STREAM or SOCK_DGRAM
Local Local socket path <path>
Peer Remote socket path <path>
Listen Queue size for listen <integer>

UNIX-Domain Sockets and File Permissions

Because UNIX-domain sockets use physical files as rendezvous points, the access mode of the socket file affects what processes are allowed access to it. This can be used to advantage as an access control mechanism.

When the bind() function (and the IO::Socket::UNIX->new() method) creates the socket file, the permissions of the resulting file are determined by the process's current umask. If umask is 0000, then the socket file is created with octal mode 0777 (all bits turned on). A directory listing shows world-writable symbolic permissions of srwxrwxrwx. This means that any process can connect to the socket and send and receive messages using it.

To restrict access to the socket, prior to creating it you can modify the umask using Perl's built-in umask() function. For example, a umask of octal 0117 creates socket files with permissions of srw-rw----, allowing socket access only to processes running with the same user and group as the server. 0177 is even more restrictive and forbids access to all processes not running with the same user ID as the server. For example, a server running as root might want to create its sockets using this umask to prevent any client that does not also have root privileges from connecting.

If you encounter difficulties using UNIX-domain sockets, inspect the permissions of the socket files and adjust the umask if they are not what you want. In the examples that follow, we explicitly set the umask to 0111 prior to creating the socket. This creates a world-writable socket, allowing any process to connect, but turns off the execute bits, which are not relevant for socket files. An alternative strategy is to call the Perl chmod() function explicitly.

Server applications are free to use the peer's socket path as a form of authentication. Before servicing a request, they can recover the peer path and insist that the socket file be owned by a particular user or group, or that it has been created in a particular directory that only a designated user or group has access to.

A "Wrap" Server

As a sample application we'll use the standard Text::Wrap module to create a simple text-formatting server. The server accepts a chunk of text input, reformats it into narrow 30-column paragraphs, and returns the reformatted text to the client. The server, named wrap_serv.pl uses the standard forking architecture and the IO::Socket::UNIX library. The client, wrap_cli.pl, uses a simple design that sends the entire input file to the server, shuts down the socket for writing, and then reads back the reformatted data. The following is an example of the output from the client after feeding it an excerpt from the beginning of this chapter:

% wrap_cli.pl ../ch22.txt
 Connected to /tmp/wrapserv...
 

In previous chapters we have focused on TCP/IP sockets, which were designed to allow processes on different hosts to communicate. Sometimes, however, you'd like two or more processes on the same host to exchange messages. Although TCP/IP sockets can be used for this purpose (and often are), an alternative is to use UNIX-domain sockets, which were designed to support local communications.

The advantage of UNIX-domain sockets over TCP/IP for local interprocess communication...

The Text::Wrap Server

Figure 22.1 lists wrap_serv.pl. It uses the forking design familiar from previous chapters. For simplicity, the server doesn't autobackground itself, write a PID file, or add any of the other frills discussed earlier, but this would be simple to add with the Daemon module developed in Chapter 14.

Figure 22.1. wrap_serv.pl, the text-formatting server

graphics/22fig01.gif

Lines 14: Import modules We load the IO::Socket module and import the fill() subroutine from Text::Wrap. Since this is a forking server, we import the WNOHANG constant from POSIX for use in the CHLD handler. We also bring in the POSIX :signal_h set to block and unblock signals. This facility will be used in the call to fork().

Lines 58: Define constants We define a SOCK_PATH constant containing the UNIX-domain socket path and various format settings to be passed to Text::Wrap.

Lines 912: Set up variables We retrieve the socket path from the command line or default to the one in SOCK_PATH. We set the Text::Wrap $columns variable to the column width defined in COLUMNS.

Lines 1316: Install signal handlers The CHLD signal reaps all child processes using a variant of the waitpid() loop that we saw earlier. This server must also unlink the UNIX-domain socket file before it terminates, and for this reason we intercept the INT and TERM signals with a handler that unlinks the file and then terminates normally.

Lines 1718: Set umask We explicitly set the umask to octal 0111 so that the listening socket will be created world readable and writable. This allows any process on the local host to communicate with the server. (The leading 0 is crucial for making 0111 interpreted as an octal constant. If omitted, Perl interprets this as decimal 111, which is something else entirely.)

Lines 1921: Create listening socket We call IO::Socket::UNIX->new() to create a UNIX-domain listening socket on the selected socket address path. The Listen argument is set to the SOMAXCONN constant exported by the Socket and IO::Socket modules.

Lines 2232: accept() loop The accept() loop is identical to similar loops used in TCP/IP servers. We do, however, call fork() through a launch_child() wrapper for reasons that we will discuss next. The interact() function is responsible for communication with the client and is run in the child process.

Lines 3342: launch_child() subroutine launch_child() is a wrapper around fork(). Because the parent server process has INT and TERM handlers that unlink the socket file, we must be careful to remove these handlers from the children; otherwise, the file might be unlinked prematurely. Using the same strategy we developed in the Daemon module of Chapter 14, we create a POSIX:: SigSet containing the INT, CHLD, and TERM signals and invoke sigprocmask() to block the signals temporarily. With the signals now safely blocked, we fork(), and reset each of the handlers to the default behavior in the child. We now unblock signals by calling sigprocmask() again and return the child's PID.

Lines 4348: interact() subroutine The routine that does all the real work is only six lines long. It retrieves the connected socket from its argument list, reads the list of text lines to format from the socket, and calls chomp() to remove the newlines, if any. It then passes the lines to the Text::Wrap fill() function, sends the result across the socket, and closes the socket.

The Text::Wrap Client

Figure 22.2 lists wrap_cli.pl, which is a mere 12 lines long.

Figure 22.2. wrap_cli.pl, the text-formatting client

graphics/22fig02.gif

Lines 13: Import modules We bring in the IO::Socket and Getopt::Long modules. The latter is used for processing command-line switches.

Line 4: Define SOCK_PATH constant We define a constant containing the default path to the UNIX-domain socket.

Lines 57: Process command-line arguments The client allows the user to manually set the path to the socket by providing a $path argument. We call GetOptions() to parse the command-line looking for this argument. If not provided, we default to the value of SOCK_PATH.

Lines 89: Open socket We call the one-argument form of IO::Socket::UNIX->new() to create a new UNIX-domain socket and attempt to connect to the address at $path. We don't need to set our umask before calling new(), because we will not be binding to a local address.

Lines 1012: Read text lines and send them to server We use <> to read all the lines from STDIN and/or the command-line argument list into an array named @lines, and send them over the socket to the server. We then invoke shutdown(1) to close the write-half of the socket and indicate to the server that we have no more data to submit.

Line 13: Print the results We read the reformatted lines from the socket and print them to STDOUT.

Using UNIX-Domain Sockets for Datagrams

UNIX-domain sockets can be used to send and receive datagrams. When creating the socket (or accepting IO::Socket::UNIX's default), instead of specifying a type of SOCK_STREAM, create the socket with SOCK_DGRAM. You will now be able to use send() and recv() to transmit messages over the socket without establishing a long-term connection.

Because UNIX-domain sockets are local to the host, there are some important differences between using UNIX-domain sockets to send datagrams locally and using the UDP protocol to send datagrams across the network. On the plus side, UNIX-domain datagrams are reliable and sequenced. Unlike with the UDP protocol, you can count on the UNIX-domain datagrams reaching their destinations and arriving in the same order you sent them. On the minus side, two-way communication is only possible if both processes bind() to a path. If the client forgets to do so, then it will be able to send messages to the server, but the server will not receive a peer address that can be used to reply.

To illustrate using datagrams across UNIX-domain sockets, we'll develop a simple variation on the daytime server. This server acts much like the standard daytime server by returning a string containing the current local date and time in response to incoming requests. However, in a nod to globalization, it also looks at the incoming message for a string indicating the time zone, and if the string is present, it returns the date and time relative to that zone.

The server is called localtime_serv.pl and the client localtime_cli.pl. The client takes an optional time-zone argument on the command line. The following excerpt shows the client being used to fetch the time in the current time zone, in Eastern Europe, and in Anchorage, Alaska:

% ./localtime_cli.pl
 Sat Jun 17 18:06:14 2000
 
 % ./localtime_cli.pl Europe/Warsaw
 Sat Jun 17 22:06:24 2000
 
 % ./localtime_cli.pl America/Anchorage
 Sat Jun 17 14:06:57 2000
 

UNIX-Domain Daytime Server

Figure 22.3 lists localtime_serv.pl. It follows the general outline of the single-threaded datagram servers discussed in Chapter 18.

Figure 22.3. localtime_serv.pl, the daytime server

graphics/22fig03.gif

Lines 16: Server setup We load the IO::Socket module and choose a default path for the socket. We then read the command line for an alternative socket path, should the user desire to change it.

Line 7: Install TERM and INT handlers As in the connection-oriented example, we need to delete the socket file before exiting. In the previous case we did this by unlinking the file in the TERM and INT signal handlers.

For variety, in this example we will accomplish the same thing by defining an END{} block that unlinks the path when the script terminates. However, to prevent the script from terminating prematurely, we must still install an interrupt handler that intercepts the TERM and INT signals and calls exit() so that the process terminates in an orderly fashion.

Lines 812: Create socket We set our umask to 0111 so that the socket will be world writable and call IO::Socket::UNIX->new() to create the socket and bind it to the designated path. Unlike the previous example, where we allowed IO::Socket::UNIX to default to a connection-oriented socket, we pass new() a Type argument of SOCK_DGRAM. Because this is a message-oriented socket, we do not provide a Listen argument.

Lines 1322: Transaction loop We enter an infinite loop. Each time through the loop we call recv() to return a message of up to 128 bytes (which is as long as a time zone specifier is likely to get). The value returned from recv() is the path to the peer's socket.

We examine the contents of the message, and if its format is compatible with a time-zone specifier, we use it to set the TZ environment variable, which contains the current time zone. Otherwise, we delete this variable, which causes Perl to default to the local time zone.

Using the peer's path, we now call send() to return to the peer a datagram containing the output of localtime(). If for some reason send() returns a false value, we issue a warning.

Line 23: END{} block The script's END{} block unlinks the socket file if $path is not empty.

UNIX-Domain Daytime Client

A client to match the daytime server is shown in Figure 22.4.

Figure 22.4. localtime_cli.pl, the daytime client

graphics/22fig04.gif

Lines 14: Load modules We load the IO::Socket and Getopt::Long modules. We also bring in the tmpnam() function from the POSIX module. This handy routine chooses unique names for temporary files; we'll use it to generate a file path for our local socket.

Lines 56: Constants We define a constant containing the default path to use for the server's socket, and a TIMEOUT value containing the maximum time we will wait for a response from the server.

Lines 710: Select pathnames for local and remote sockets We process command-line options looking for a --path argument. If none is defined, we default to the same path for the server socket that the server uses.

We also need a pathname for the local socket so that the server can talk back to us, but we don't want to hard code the path because another user might want to run the client at the same time. Instead, we call POSIX::tmpnam() to return a unique temporary filename for the local socket.

Line 11: Signal handlers We will unlink the local socket in an END{} block as in the server. For this reason, we intercept the INT and TERM signals.

Lines 1216: Create socket We set our umask as before and call IO::Socket::UNIX->new() to create the socket, providing both Local and Type arguments to create a SOCK_DGRAM socket bound to the temporary pathname returned by tmpnam().

Lines 1718: Prepare to transmit request We recover the requested time zone from the command line. If none is provided, we create a message consisting of a single space (we must send at least 1 byte of data to the server in order for it to respond). We use sockaddr_un() to create a valid destination address for use with send().

Lines 1927: Send request and receive response We call send() to send the message containing the requested time zone to the server.

We now want to call recv() to read the response from the server, but we don't know for sure that the server is listening. So instead of calling recv() and waiting indefinitely for a response, we wrap the call in an eval{} block using the technique shown in Chapter 5. On entry into the eval{}, we set a handler for the ALRM signal, which calls die(). We then set an alarm clock for TIMEOUT seconds using alarm() and call recv(). If recv() returns before the alarm expires, we print the returned data. Otherwise, we die with an error message.

Line 28: END{} block As in the server, we unlink the local socket after we are done.

If you wish to watch the client's timeout mechanism work, start the server and immediately suspend it using the suspend key (^Z on UNIX systems). When the client sends a request to the server, it will not get a response and will issue a timeout error.

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